Plasmodium In Malaria

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Introduction
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a blood protozoan transmitted by a female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria has a high morbidity and high mortality rate especially in children and pregnant women (Martinez-Groin et.al 2008). There four different types of plasmodia that cause malaria they include: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Malaria is endemic in Africa, Asia, Latin America, India and Pakistan (Martinez-Groin et.al 2008). Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for most of the high date rate and occurrence of the disease (Snow et.al 2005) followed by Plasmodium vivax (Guerra et.al 2010).
The life cycle of the plasmodium is divided into two; the asexual stage which occurs in
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The global malaria infection was estimated by gathering and integrating information which was used to observe the development of malaria infection and the prevalence of the parasite (Bousema and Drakeley, 2011). As mentioned earlier Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the major causes of malaria in the world. Recent estimate indicate that roughly 2.4 billion people are at risk of malaria caused by P. falciparum (Guerra, 2008), with 300 to 500 million morbidity and 1 million deaths yearly (Hays, 2010). P. vivax is usually more spread out geographically but it has less mortality (Bousema and Drakeley, 2011). It is estimated that roughly 2.9 billion people are at risk of malaria caused by P. vivax (Guerra et.al 2010) and 300 to 800 million morbidity yearly (Mueller,…show more content…
There is the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) as vector control measures (Beier et.al 2008). These control methods reduce the transmission of malaria there is still debate about whether they can succeed in eliminating malaria. A research conducted in eastern Rwanda showed that some people due to lack of knowledge about malaria did not readily accept ITN, they claimed that it makes them sweat at night, some people developed skin rashes and infestation of the nets by bedbugs which they claimed was increased by IRS (Ingabire et.al 2015). There is also the development of resistance to different classes of insecticide in some African countries (Owens,

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