In audiovisual translation, there are two most widespread modalities adopted for translating products for the screen, they are dubbing and subtitling (Chiaro, 2008). Díaz Cintas and Remael in Scholtes (2016) define subtitling as “a translation practice that consists of presenting a written text, generally on the lower part of the screen, that endeavours to recount the original dialogue of the speakers, as well as the discursive elements that appear in the image (letters, inserts, graffiti, inscriptions, placards, and the like), and the information that is contained on the soundtrack (songs, voices
Translation is the observable fact that has significant impact on routine life. It may include the translation of highly valuable international treaty or it may involve an advertising poster that provides some information to the customers or conveys some message to the visitors in a hotel or restaurant. (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p. 03). Problems in Translation The main problem faced by a translator is the lack of word by word matching between languages. This is fact that each and every language has its own manner of depicting incidents or reality and the translator have to take the unique aspects of both the source and target languages into account while translating.
It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
It uses linguistic methods to examine and interpret the text and then to find the new concepts and expressions to best describe it by generating a new shorter text that conveys the most important information from the original text document. Abstraction can condense a text more strongly than extraction, but the programs that can do this are harder to develop as they require the use of natural language generation technology. 3.2.2 SINGLE AND MULTI DOCUMENT TEXT SUMMARIZATION: If summarization is performed for a single text document then it is called as the single document text summarization. Single document summarization techniques have the potential to simplify information consumption on mobile phones by presenting only the most relevant information contained in the document. If the summary is to be created for multiple text documents then it is called as the multi document text summarization technique.
At this point, it became clear that language is an integral part of every culture and that, as such, it serves as a medium of its expression. Consequently, many aspects of culture are embedded in language. The act of translation, thus, is not simply a matter of language, but it, in fact, constitutes a sort of compromise between two cultures. Mary Snell-Hornby calls this new development "the Cultural Turn" (The Turns of Translation Studies 47). This marked the shift from the traditional approach to translating, which was largely prescriptive, source-text oriented, linguistic and atomistic to an approach that was descriptive, target-text oriented, functional and systemic (Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies 49).
(Bassnett, 2005, pp. 12 - 14) Even today this debate exists. It is mostly connected to the way people define translation. If one has been asked to define the word translation, it would most likely been something like translation implies finding equivalent words in another language(s). What is implied is that translation is commensurate with a literal interpretation of means of one language, whether written or spoken one.
This is followed by a comparative analysis of translation strategies using three parameters, which have been selected based on the theoretical comparison between subtitling and dubbing, and which best represent the differences between the two methods, their advantages and disadvantages. After thoroughly watching the Bee Movie on DVD, we selected examples that best represent the individual
According to Pienkos (2003, p. 388), a translator needs accuracy, diligence, good ability to handle the stress and also excellent memory to do the translation. However, many people think lightly about translation. They think that translation is just change words and sentences from one language into another language. Practically, a translator should have enough knowledge about the concept and the structure of the source language and the target language so they can change it in the equivalent meaning in the target language. Koller (1995, p. 196) said that a translation is the process of transposing the source language to the target language which has a relationship which is defined as equivalence relation.
Brislin (1976: 1) defines translation as: "the general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the languages are in written or oral form; whether the languages have established orthographies or do not have such standardization or whether one or both languages is based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf". It is defined by Reiss, (2000:160) as "a bilingual mediated process of communication, which ordinarily aims at the production of a Target Language text that is functionally equivalent to a Source Language text". Ghazala (1995:1-2) used the term to refer to all the processes and methods used to convey the meaning of the source language into the target language. Hatem and Mason (1990) defined it as “the transfer of meaning from one language to
This chapter presents the aspect of audiovisual translation, it’s development and usage. In separate subsections of this chapter three main methods of AVT are described. II.I The overview of AVT At first it should be explained what is the meaning of the term audiovisual. It may be said that it is a “combination of verbal, nonverbal, audio and visual elements to the same degree of importance”. All these elements complement each other to make the viewer perceive the content in a previously settled way.