Making Soap 1.Define the following terms: triacylglycerol, saponification, surfactant, micelle. Answer: Triacylglycerol – An ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat. Saponification – A process that produces soap, usually from fats and lye. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids.
REGULATION OF FATTY ACID METABOLISM Introduction: Fatty acids are produced by acetyl-CoA by its transformation to malonyl-COA by various known as fatty acid synthases and this takes place in cytoplasm.Acetyl-COA is fuether transformed into various fats molecules taken from carbohydrates through a process known as glycolytic pathway.This pathway basically requires glycerol along with three fatty acid molecules to form a structure called as neutral fats or triglycerols.Two fatty acid molecules basically combines together with a molecule of glycerol along with third alcohol group is phosphorylated to form new structures such as phospholipid and phosphatidylcholine.It makes bilayers that involves in formation of cell membranes around various organelles
Cellulose is a greatly abundant and utilized to make an assortment of items, for example, paper and plastics. It is formed by a long chain of glucose particles joined from the # 1 carbon on one to the # 4 carbon on the next. Starch is another large carbohydrate made solely from glucose however it comprises two sorts of chains. One sort of chain (amylose) is direct or linear (which, like cellulose, has the # 1 and # 4 connected to structure the chain). The other sort of chain (amylopectin) has a 1>4 backbone, and has branches; amylopectin is similar to glycogen, which is the most accessible form of nourishment stored away by various types of animals, including
Pages 96-98 in Chemistry 110 Lab Manual. Wilfrid Laurier University, ON, Canada. Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the level of purity by using the values for melting point and absorbance and chemically synthesizing aspirin by using phosphoric acid as a catalyst. Pure ASA crystals are isolated from the solution with a Hirsch Funnel that was used with a filter. The melting point of the pure ASA crystals were calculated in order to calculate of absorbance.
Lactic acid is produced by two methods i.e, chemical method and fermentation method. Chemical method utilizes petrochemical resources followed by addition of HCN and specific catalyst to produce lactic acid . While fermentation methods utilizes renewable resources such as carbohydrate in a fermented broth to obtain lactic acid . Optical purity of lactic acid is very important and hense is major addressed problem in production of PLA. Chemical method produces racemic mixture of both D(-) and L(+) lactic acid while fermentation methods produces only one optically pure form of D(-) or L(+) lactic acid
Discussions. This method is used to accurately quantify pesticides in water samples. The lyophilization is advantageous to allow the complete of the samples to minimize error. The acetonitrile resulted in 82% - 104% extraction efficiency for Alachlor and Malathion in the water samples. The different solvent gradient was fixed to contain both the physical and chemical properties of the pesticides.
It is a plastic that is produced from plant-based substances such as a starchy grain like corn, starch/sugar cane, potatoes, wheat or even beets. The grain is milled, and a sugar is then extracted. The solution ferments in bacteria turning the simple sugar into lactic acid. Once it is purified by the removal of extra water, the lactic acid forms the compound, lactide. A catalyst is then added which allows the lactide molecules to form a long polymer strand.
INTRODUCTION- Various fats and fatty acid made up of triglycerides of fatty acids. Lots of fatty acid, specifically polyunsaturated fatty acids, are difficult to synthesize and can only be acquired from natural fats or fatty acid by process of extraction, in which they are naturally present. Most of these unsaturated fatty acids are known to be valuable because of their therapeutic properties. The fatty acids which having these properties must be in specific cis-trans configuration. These polyunsaturated fatty acid are essential for normal growth and health.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are well known for its protective effect on human health. However, they contain multiple double bonds which are susceptible to lipid oxidation. These have been long recognized and it is the major challenge in oil industry. Lipid oxidation is the main factor of food deterioration. It not only affects fatty acid composition and the nutritional quality of the food, it also causes undesirable changes in colour, aroma and produce toxic compounds (Wasowicz, 2004).
PRINCIPLE Fatty acids are one of the major components in lipids. Fatty acids contain an aliphatic chain with carboxylic acid group. Free fatty acid (FFA) will form during the breakdown of lipid by the process of hydrolysis and oxidation. These free fatty acid content which also known as acid value is important where it is commonly used in quality control of fat and oil. Acid value is the value that indicate the amount of FFA present in a particular substance.