The origins of the Poverty measure While studying the impact of minimum wage increases on poverty, it is of significant importance to understand how poverty is measured. According to the definition of poverty – “The U.S. Census Bureau determines poverty status by comparing pre-tax cash income against a threshold that is set at three times the cost of a minimum food diet in 1963, updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index (CPI; see the last section of this FAQ for an explanation of the CPI), and adjusted for family size, composition, and age of householder. "Family" is defined by the official poverty measure as persons living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Thresholds do not vary geographically.”
Sociologists have questioned the irregularities of wealth distribution across different countries over a period of time. Researchers have measured poverty as either absolute or relative. Absolute poverty involves a judgment of basic human needs and is measured in terms of the resources required to maintain health and physical efficiency. Majority of the measures of absolute poverty are concerned with establishing the quality and amount of food, clothing and shelter which are deemed necessary for a healthy life. Absolute poverty is also referred to as subsistence poverty because it is based on the system of assessment of the minimum requirements for the subsistence of the human body.
Thus the culture of poverty is a topic which creates heated debates in both the public and political arenas. The culture of poverty, according to recent research, entails collective norms and values that lead people to poverty or make them remain entangled in the poverty trap.The culture of poverty is attributed to the behavior of the poor and their attitudes (Bell et al, 2013). This culture is seen to affect majorly the black Americans, who according to research fail to succeed in school and later in life. This poverty trickles down to generations, resulting in the culture of dependency. Research also shows that slum children at their young ages of six or seven absorb the basic behaviors of their cultures and cannot embrace the opportunities for changing the status in which they are.
Relative poverty considers the status of each individual or household in relation to the status of other individuals, households in the community, or other social groupings, taking into account the context in which it occurs (i.e. their position within the distribution of that population). Relative poverty typically changes spatially and temporally, and measures of relative poverty are therefore not necessarily comparable between locations (due to the differing social stratification between communities) or over time. The relative approach examines poverty in the context of inequality within a society, though they should not be conflated. According to FAO (2006) it is the condition in which people lack the minimum amount of income requirements in order to maintain the average standard of living in the society in which they live.
Poverty is a term that concentrates on those who have the least money or other resources or, as Ridge and Wright (2008) argue, it is ‘a situation of extreme disadvantage experienced at the bottom of the social and economic scale’. Yet poverty is more than being at the bottom of the income scale; it describes individuals and families who have inadequate resources to secure what is deemed a reasonable, or expected, standard of living within a given country. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) working definition of poverty is: ‘When a person’s resources (mainly their material resources) are not sufficient to meet their minimum needs (including social participation)’ (Goulden and D’Arcy,
The argument whether poverty leads to conflict or conflict leads to poverty has being a heated debate among scholars in academia. This paper seeks to provide explanations on the meaning of poverty and conflict, the nexus between poverty and conflict and its impacts on development from different perspectives, causes of poverty and conflict, theories of conflict and to succinctly take a position whether poverty leads to conflict or conflict leads to poverty. There is no definite definition of poverty and conflict. According to Encarta, poverty is the condition of having insufficient resources or income. In its most extreme form, poverty is a lack of basic human needs such as adequate and nutritious food, clothing, housing, clean water and health services.
For instance, if a person is receiving a cash aid from the government, it is more likely that they would not pursue more money elsewhere. If an individual would receive free money from the government, most would think it to be pointless to get and keep a job. According to a survey done by Newsweek reporter, Jason Le Miere, sixty-three percent of the American population believe that the personal characteristic of laziness has a direct impact on another individual living in poverty. Not only does an overdeveloped sense of laziness contribute to what is defined as poverty, but an underdeveloped sense of decision making seems to go together with this idea as
Poverty can be measured in the health, food, healthcare, clean drinking water and security. It is generally recognized that poverty is when people can not achieve a standard of living that is common in their society. Thus, we understand that the meaning of being poor is different between different communities and countries on earth. Poverty looks different depending on who you are and where you live. Such as ones sex, age, ethnic background, religion, environment, and which country you come from determines the conditions.
According to Encyclopedia Americana (1989) poverty can be viewed from two different perspectives and these two points of view are: (i) “ moneylessness” which means both an insufficiency of cash and serious inadequacy of resources of all kinds to satisfy and meet basic human needs, such as, nutrition, rest, and body maintenance; and (ii) “powerlessness” meaning those that lack the chances and choices open to them and whose lives seem to them to be governed by forces and persons outside their control. From this, it is seen that poverty has various manifestations which include among others: lack of income and productive resources enough to make sure sustainable livelihood, hunger and malnutrition, limited or lack of access to education, ill health, and other basic services, increased morbidity and mortality from illness, homelessness and inadequate, unsafe and degraded environment and social discrimination and exclusion LITERATURE REVIEW Vital to the clamour for policies and programmes that will reduce poverty is the issue of the conceptualization of poverty. Conceptually, there three dominant views that will be identified as the meaning of poverty in this paper. Aliyu, (2002) has specifically identified the first view that views poverty as a chronic deprivation of some basic human needs at the individual or household level. Put differently, poverty is a material deprivation and this can best be measured and quantified in monetary terms.
Poverty is defined as a state where a certain group lacks the means needed for everyday living, Inequality refers to a state where one individual or group receives unequal opportunities based on their financial or social status, and modernity refers to advancement which can be in terms of economy, industry, education, etc. Poverty, modernity and inequality are distinct realities of the world we reside in, however, they do not have direct relations to one another. It is widely accepted that poverty is a state of relative deprivation within a given society (Townsend, 1979; Nolan and Callan, 1994).This deprivation leads the poor to become victims of inequality, whereby they do not receive equal opportunities and are frowned upon by society. The poor therefore experience inequality in its many dimensions-economic, social and emotional. These conditions are highlighted in the poems; "Rats" by Nasreen Anjum Bhatti and In "The Eyes of The Poor" by Charles Baudelaire.Nasreen Bhatti shows readers the dark and devastating nature of poverty.
Welfare Keeps America Alive Public assistance, or welfare, defines itself as a public or private social service aimed towards assisting those who are inclined to be more disadvantaged than the general population. Public assistance helps these disadvantaged by providing a minimal but steady income from organizations, such as the TANF (temporary assistance for needy families) or the SSI (supplemental security income).These organizations help the struggling to regain their previous successes thus, creating a better stabilized economy. Public assistance is needed due to the increasing poverty rates in the United States caused by unemployment and physical disabilities. A common misconception made about welfare is that anyone who applies for the assistance automatically becomes a recipient. This is definitely not the case, public assistance is only given to those who are in desperate need of help.
Since tracking our spending I’ve given myself a budget of forty dollars a month for groceries. I managed to reduce my cost and spent about twenty dollars a month on groceries. The way I keep track of my spending was through Microsoft Excel by splitting each category into five sections. In my grocery/store category I have one section to describe each item that I purchase and another section to write down the day that I purchase them. The next section is the amount that I want to spend each month and another section tells actual amount that I spend for each month.
While the goal was to make each dollar more effective to people in poverty, there is evidence of issues with the program over time. Some of this has to do with each state 's autonomy and their ability to decide where the grant money from the government goes. “In 1996, for every 100 families with children living in poverty, TANF provided cash aid to 68 families. By 2010, it provided cash assistance to only 27 such families for every 100 in poverty” (Trisi). This depicts the TANF steadily losing effectiveness.
Minimum wage is the least amount of money per hour that employers are required to pay according to the law. The minimum wage is set to be the standard of living. Due to inflation, $7.25 an hour has become less than the minimum necessary, causing many Americans to fall well below the poverty line. The government should raise minimum wage to create more job opportunities, decrease government assistance, and increase the economy overall. The economy will raise as a whole when workers put their money back into the community.
The SNAP program is considered to be one of the largest food assistance programs. According to the USDA, “approximately 47 million persons participated in SNAP in 2012, at a cost of almost $75 billion.” The SNAP program goal is to help participants make healthier choices buy choosing and consuming foods according to the dietary guidance. In order to receive assistance of the program the individual must meet certain requirements. Eligibility usually goes based off of household income. “A family’s gross monthly income must be below 185% of the Federal Poverty Level in order to be found eligible for the program.