The Roles Of Insulin

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Insulin was first discovered by Frederick Banting and Charles Best on July 30th 1921 when they

injected a diabetic dog with their newly discovered extract and found that it effectively lowered

the dog’s blood glucose levels to normal. After a lot more testing and cleaning of the hormone

for humans it was then first tested on a 14 year old boy in 1922 who was close to death. The test

was a success as it rapidly regained his strength and appetite.

2) Which organ produces the hormone and how does the hormone work in

the human body?

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin works in the body by acting as a key to

bring glucose levels to normal. So when the stomach breaks down food, some of it is broken

down to sugars called
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Injecting Insulin

3) Write about the important role of the pituitary gland? Why is it called the

master gland?

The main role of the pituitary gland is to control and help regulate the activities of other

endocrine glands. It is often called the ‘master gland’ because it controls the activities of other

endocrine glands such as the ovaries, the testes, adrenal gland and also the thyroid gland.

4) A person may suffer from a number of symptoms when they fail to regulate

the production of this hormone. What are these symptoms and describe

how this condition can be treated?

If the pancreas fails to regulate the production of insulin the person would suffer from a

number of symptoms. The name given to the condition where a pancreas either doesn’t produce

insulin at all or doesn’t produce sufficient amounts is called diabetes. So when people with

diabetes eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruits, starchy
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This is why blood glucose levels are higher in people

with diabetes.

There are two main types of diabetes, ‘Type 1 diabetes’ in

which the pancreas doesn’t produce any insulin and ‘Type 2

diabetes’ where the pancreas makes some insulin but it is

not produced in the amount the body needs. To stay alive,

people with type 1 diabetes depend on up to four insulin

injections every day. These insulin injections provide the

body with the insulin the pancreas fails to produce. They

must also test their blood glucose levels several times

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