Throughout history, disputes and tensions between law enforcement officials and communities of minorities have endured hostility and violence between each other. Racial profiling has become a “hot topic” for researchers as well as for politicians and by now it is likely that most citizens are at least aware of the common accusations of racial bias pitted against law enforcement (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Communities of color are being discriminated against and racially profiled by white police officers for any suspicion of criminal activities. It has been widely assumed by policy makers and citizens alike that allegations of racial profiling are mostly associated with the policing practices of white officers and their treatment of racial and ethnic minorities (Cochran & Warren, 2013). Also, individuals of minority descent will certainly recognize that they are being racially profiled during a stop that is being conducted by a white police officer.
1. What does the social construction of race and ethnicity mean? The social construction of race and ethnicity deals with the need to have a hierarchy based on skin color, phenotype, and the poking and prodding of humans to scientifically justify their claims that White is the superior race. Though the basis of the conversation of race and ethnicity as a social construct is based on biases, prejudice, and misconceptions about minorities, it was believed in society for many decades because of the rhetoric that was pushed into institutions that helped to further oppress people of color.
He supports his claim by first analyzing the role politics played in mass incarceration, as well as how media portrayals incited reactions and misrepresented minorities, then he determines how public opinion affected policy, and finally, he addresses the degree to which punitiveness caused the rise and fall of support for mass incarceration. Enns ' book is helpful to my research paper because it examines the racial disparities in sentencing, as well as, discriminatory attitudes and perspectives that determine
Race has always been a problem in America and other countries. But developments such as Critical Race Theory (CRT) has helped challenge race and racial power and its representation in American society. Articles such as Critical Race Theory: An Introduction by Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic; White Privilege, Color, and Crime: A Personal Account by Peggy McIntosh have helped CRT develop further. Along with the documentary White Like Me by filmmaker Tim Wise. These articles and film explore the race and racism in the United States, along with critical race theory.
According to Gerstenfeld, hate crimes “may or may not include sexual orientation, gender, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, or political affiliation.” Some argue that every group should be protected by hate crime legislation, but this runs the risk of watering down the significance of such protections. The groups that are most frequently targeted by hate crimes including African Americans, gays and lesbians, Jews, and Muslims should be prioritized over other groups. Historically, the most targeted groups in the United States are African Americans, LGBT community, Jews, and Muslims. These groups are undoubtedly in the most need for protections provided by hate crime laws.
Racial Profiling is one of the many areas covered in racial discrimination. It refers to the discriminatory practice, especially by law enforcement officials which targets individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individual 's race, ethnicity, religion or national origin. Racial profiling has been and is still an issue today in almost every part of the United States. It is seen in different situations whereby people are treated very unfairly or branded criminals and suspects without any form of evidence It is a type of racial discrimination seen in all places though racial discrimination touches many areas like award of government benefits which is unequally shared as it should ,but at times based on who the person is. For example, I was once a victim in the
Racial profiling occurs when law enforcement officials target individuals because of their race rather than because their behavior suggests they have broken or will break the law. Racial profiling can and does occur in a variety of different ways. Some forms of racial profiling most commonly discussed in the United States today include the practice of stopping African American drivers, singling out Latino/as for immigration checks and searching Arab Americans in airports. It can become a part of all types of decisions law enforcement officials must make, from deciding who to stop, who to arrest, on whom to use restraints and on whom to use lethal force.
Critical Race Theory Race has always been a problem America and other countries. But developments such as Critical Race Theory also known as (CRT) has helped challenge race and racial power and its representation in American society. Articles such as Critical Race Theory: An Introduction by Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic; White Privilege, Color, and Crime: A Personal Account by Peggy McIntosh have helped critical race theory develop further. Along with the documentary White Like Me by filmmaker Tim Wise.
Jim Crow Laws can be a method of discriminating people of different races, and these laws influenced many people in the United States. Through the influence of the Jim Crow Laws large groups of people were segregated by skin color, and the segregation was enforced by many terrible kinds of behavior, such as murder, lynching, and other forms of violence. The discrimination historically, culturally, geographically, and socially impacted every person, from childhood, throughout large parts of the 19th and 20th centuries; it was illustrated in a novel by Harper Lee, To Kill A Mockingbird. Jim Crow Laws had imposed a racial segregation between White Americans and African-Americans, and was predominantly in the Southern United States. The
A person’s race or ethnicity should not be a probable cause during a traffic stop. Not to mentioned, the “Supreme Court has turned a blind eye to the use of pretextual stops on a racial basis” (2009, pg. 291). In other words, officers are free to act on the assumption that being black increases the probability that an individual is a criminal. No wonder blacks view the criminal justice system as being biased against