But the two central themes that dominate the novel are the moral redemption of its main character, Jean Valjean, an ex-convict, and the moral redemption of a nation through revolution. Victor Hugo said: "I condemn slavery, I banish poverty, I teach ignorance, I treat disease, I lighten the night, and I hate hatred. That is what I am, and that is why I have written Les Miserables." The novel is a critical statement against human suffering, poverty, and ignorance. Its purpose is as much political as it is artistic Objectives Les Misérables, directed by Tom Hooper.
Voltaire (1694), a French writer who escape to England in (1726) for his political satirical works which criticized the French empire at that time. In England, he was introduced to many members of ‘the literary and scientific elite’ (Fraser, 172). He was well acquainted with Swift’s Gulliver’s Travel. Then he was influenced by Swift’s satiric method of writing and particularly the dystopian. Voltaire’s practical influence by Swift was embodied in his novel.
Among these intellectuals were the Romantic poets of the first generation, like Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge. Later, however, many of them got disappointed and disillusioned by the bloody outcome of the French Revolution and embraced more conservative ideals. After the initial symbolical gesture of eliminating the aristocracy, the revolution developed into a bloody power struggle between different groups. In particular, when the radical Jacobins seized power from the moderate Girondins in 1793, they used extreme measures to realize their revolutionary
Therefore, he used his own newspaper to communicate with France during both his Italians Campaigns as well as Egyptian expedition and probably the most famous demonstrations of Napoleonic propaganda are the Bulletins of the Grande Armée, which were written under Napoleon’s supervision if not by his own hand and dispatched from his military headquarters whenever on campaign. The actual truth was in these texts so often highly twisted in Napoleon´s favour, that even the soldiers of his Grand Armée felt amused by it, and use the proverbial phrase: To lie like a Bulletin. However, this awareness of power of the printed media has also led to establishment of censorship. As you can see, after Napoleon became First Consul, the number of Parisian newspapers was decreased by his order in January 1800 from seventy to thirteen and this process radically continued after his coronation. Naturally, at the beginning of his career, Napoleon focused mainly on French public opinion, but since his coronation and massive expansion of the French Empire in the first decade of the 19th century, the necessity to spread the positive image of the Emperor outside the French borderline was increased.
1. Roland Barthes and His Poststructuralist Views Roland Barthes (1915-80) is considered one of the prominent French literary critics who is an emblem of the turning point from structuralism to poststructuralist. Jonathan Culler calls Barthes “famous for contradictory reasons.” (Cain, E.,1316) Because he was first interested in exploring the scientific and structural points of Saussure and his semiology as well as his notion of codifying the universe and narratives.On the other hand, Barthes attempted to explore the pleasure of the texts which is one of the major concerns of the poststructuralists. In his revolutionary work “The Death of the Author” he takes the story of Sarrasine by Balzac, the tale of a sculptor who falls in love with a woman who is indeed a castrato. By analyzing this text Barthes declared the death of author as Nietzsche previously had declared the death of God.
This was the Reign Of Terror. After this, an era of more moderation finally started. Because of the weak and inefficient government the general Napoleon Bonaparte took over the power. The Emperor had good ideas about human rights and invested the money of France with it’s population. He made railroads and public schools for the poor.
Another reason they overthrew the monarchy as they wanted equality between humans, and monarchy has equality embedded in it. One can also consider the revolution an act of nationalism, as the people fight for their land and freedom. Some historians also say that most great wars like World War I, the American Revolution and French Revolution. In the case of the French Revolution the people were frustrated with the king, King Louis XVI due to his inability to deal with the nation 's problems.3 There were many problems going on during that period in France but the main problems that lead
Not only is this character found in Byron’s work, but is also modeled in many of his contemporaries and predecessors from Mary Shelley's Victor Frankenstein in Frankenstein to Charlotte Bronte’s Mr. Rochester in Jane Eyre and Emily Bronte’s Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights besides many more. This character has become a guideline for the formation of many leading mysterious protagonists. In The Byronic Hero: Types and Prototypes, Peter Thorslev describes the Byronic hero as one of the most prominent literary character types of the Romantic
Stories play a significant role in our lives, they inspire us to reason, recognize and to discover where we can relate it with us, in our lives. Among many legendary story writers, who are recognized worldwide through their strong hand on writing, this article is raising on a very famous and appreciated prize treasuring author of his times ‘William Sydney Porter’ who is lionized as “O. Henry” by his passionate lovers. The writing of O. Henry depicts a great blend of S³, where sobs, sniffles, and smilestell us, a deep connectionism of life. All his short stories have great integration of characters, jocularity, shades of life and a surprise ending.
R.K Narayan belongs to the category of well known literary personges of Indian subcontinent. Through his work of fiction he has tried to represent true essence of his motherland. He is also the creator of fictional town of Malgudi. His art and style of writing is so vivid and unique that one is spellbound reading his fiction. Narayan is not only popular in India but he has earned the reputation as an international figure.