The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s was a struggle for African Americans to obtain equal rights and be free of racial discrimination. The use of Jim Crow Laws allowed people, particularly in the South, to continue oppressing African Americans after the Civil War. Confrontational tactics such as protests and sit-ins were important in the Civil Rights Movement, however non-confrontational tactics such as litigation, civil disobedience and economic boycotts were most important as they brought about significant change in opposing segregation. Confrontation is defined as a hostile or argumentative situation between opposing parties.
The whites feared mixing of the race which is the Mongrel Race; because they were afraid the white race would be diluted. So, they did everything keep blacks at the bottom. The Southern states reacted by creating and enforcing Jim Crow laws. The Jim Crow was a system created as a segregation of colored people and white people, but mainly focusing on blacks. These laws existed because of the idea of being superior (Ferris State University, 2012).
“Bloody Lowndes” by Hasan Kwame Jeffries commends the sacrifices black southerners made against conventional ideas of political power in Alabama, setting forth the fight for black civil rights. White supremacy in office did not allow for blacks to have fair representation in the laws that governed them. This constant oppression fueled the urge for change and the convening amongst black people in Alabama. An important part of this progression was the formation of the SNCC, or Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in 1960. The involvement of younger people in the Civil Rights Movement, like that of the SNCC, initiated an understanding that equal rights for blacks was not impossible.
Although many attempts were made to prioritize freedom and equality for all, these values were undermined by racist Southerners who wouldn’t accept equality. In the end, Reconstruction had failed and former slaves endured another hardship akin to slavery. However, Reconstruction still could have prospered. There are multiple events that, if they had occurred, Reconstruction would not have failed. For example, had the government continued to fund the Freedmen’s Bureau, then the South would have legislated their discriminatory laws much later, if not at all.
Starting in the late 18th century, the process of naturalization and racial equality has plagued America. In 1790 congress decided to extend citizenship only to free whites in the Naturalization Act of 1790. That standard changed after the War when citizenship was also granted to people of African descent but that change did not mean equal treatment or equal rights. Although blacks and minorities were indeed citizens, they were stripped of many basic rights and privileges such as unhindered ability to vote, access to facilities, restaurants and businesses, and housing. Black codes, passed in 1866, restricted African Americans’ economic potential by ensuring that blacks remained a cheap labor force.
In the 1954, the U.S Supreme Court passed the separate but equal, this was basis for state-sanctioned discrimination, drawing national and international attention to African Americans plight. Civil right activists used nonviolent protest and civil disobedience to help bring around
African American’s were given emancipation and the right to vote, and in some southern states, African Americans were elected into official positions. For these reasons, racial discrimination and white supremacy groups arose, out of fear and hatred for the newfound freedom of black Americans. Political success was effective in theory, though the social ramifications catalysed a greater effect that has shaped contemporary America. Radical reconstruction was successful in some aspects for the aforementioned reasons, though as the contemporary historian can infer, this reconstruction wasn’t as successful. The lack of mention of equality has led to it being a continuous issue in contemporary
Sometimes whites would fail at keeping blacks out of their neighborhoods and would completely pack up and move themselves to a different neighborhood. Other times the electricity would be turned off just to make them move somewhere else. The forced moving of blacks out of white neighborhoods into black neighborhoods was called “ghettoization”. Living in black neighborhoods was probably better for blacks because they couldn’t be racist towards each other and they were able to help each other out (Black Ghetto).
In the 1950’s most neighborhood were heavily segregated, and it would not be until many years later that his would change. In fact whites tried to keep it like that to prevent Blacks prevails in the changing economy. As explained in the article “Racial Segregation: 1950s and Today’’ by Raeshma Bedi, “Racial segregation in housing prevented blacks from moving into white neighborhoods and that directly affected employment opportunities, economic status and health outcomes of African Americans”. In order to preserve this segregation, the Whites would make threats, harm, or intice the pondering families with money in order to preserve their communities. As seen when Karl Linder attempts to buy out the Younger family in the story.
The blacks were getting treated bad by the whites. The blacks were affected because they didn’t even have equal freedom as the whites and the whites didn’t do anything about it. The leader of the Black Power Movement was stokely Carmichael. They had a non-violence
After the Civil War, the 13th Amendment formally abolished slavery was ratified in 1865. In addition, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 (en) which provides a number of civil rights to all people born in the States -United. Despite this, the emergence of "black codes" that punish acts of submission against Blacks, continue to prohibit African Americans civil rights due to them. The 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868 to support this effort and the Civil Rights Act of 1875 is proclaimed in stride.
After the Brown vs. Board of Education case, this all changed. Once the Civil War and slavery ended, the question of African American 's freedom remained. African Americans were given their freedom from slavery but, at the same time, were not their freedom from segregation.
There was one student at the University of Oklahoma that was treated with disrespect and inferiority because of how he looked and how he acted. The poor conditions for blacks in schools under the “Separate but equal” doctrine caused the NAACP to file 5 different cases that took out segregation from schools and the Supreme Court’s decision created history. The conditions for black students were horrible and unsanitary. The ¨Separate but Equal¨ doctrine was created in 1896 to keep blacks and whites away from each other (Somervill 28).
After the Underground Railroad, moral code came into question, and with the Constitution demanding all people be equal, the people in the North could no longer bear to uphold slavery. The Underground Railroad was risky and dangerous, but it furthered racial equality by creating a coalition against slavery and by freeing African
It wasn’t till the late 1960’s when states began to integrate black students into the mainstream by law. One of the first black students to enter a white school for the deaf was Mae Crook. Crook lost all her black friends and the whites wouldn’t accept her. African American deaf people are part of two different cultures. For one, they are apart of the African American culture.