They also have been accredited with been a prime mover in Organisational Behaviour as it was the first experiment which essentially emphasised the importance of human needs in the workplace. The experiments modernized management principles throughout the world. The implications of the Hawthorne Studies inspired theorists such as Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor to conduct further research in this field. Key conclusions from the experiments emphasized the importance of having an in depth understanding of people’s feelings and how they impact on work productivity. Elton Mayo perfectly illustrated this by saying “One friend, one person who is truly understanding, who takes the trouble to listen to us as we consider our problems, can change our whole outlook on the work”.
Esteem needs refer to the need for self-esteem and respect, with self-respect being slightly more important than gaining respect and admiration from others. Employees would feel that this need is being fulfilled if they are offered praise and recognition when they do well, and are offered promotions and additional responsibility. Self-actualization needs describe a person 's need to reach his or her full potential. The need to become what one is capable of is something that is highly personal. Since this need is very individualized, an employee or manager can account for this need by providing challenging work, inviting employees to participate in decision-making and giving them flexibility and autonomy in their jobs.
It categorizes sitting as the behaviour that defines what sedentary behaviour is about. It addresses the prevalence of sedentary behaviour in workplace settings particularly this phenomenon has increased over the last century due to advances in technology. Ultimately the study discusses barriers and strategies in implementing a workplace environment that reduce sedentary behaviour and enhance workers’ or employees’ physical wellbeing. This study was a mixed-methods study. Some of the barriers mentioned include the workplace culture and the normalization of the sedentary behaviour.
A person will only perform at a certain level if they believe that the performance will lead to a given expressed outcome. Instrumentality can be described as the thought that if an individual performs well, then a valued outcome will come to that individual. This well explained by the instrumentality theory Reward has therefore been seen to be a vital instrument in employee performance. This is because a well rewarded employee feels valued by the company. The employee is thus encouraged to work harder and better if they are aware that their well-being is taken seriously by their employers, and that their career and self-development are also being taken care of by their company thus increasing employee performance, Condly et al,(
Therefore, the leader needs to arouse this interest in the employees and make them work to the best of their capabilities. Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which means that the needs and wants of an employee has to be fulfilled by making an incentive plan. Businesses which are not able to motivate their employees face low productivity and high turnover rates. There are multiple theories which help in explaining how employees can be motivated in the workplace. It is important to understand that which of the motivational theories best fits your organisation which would increase employee retention rates and improve worker productivity.
Autonomy refers to a context of accountability, authority and responsibility (Mrayyan, 2006). Work autonomy can be defined as ‘a practice, or set of practices involving the delegation of responsibility down the hierarchy so as to give employees increased decision-making authority in respect to the execution of their primary work tasks' (Leach et al., 2003). Work autonomy also is viewed as a protection against negative outcomes for those individuals who use emotional work strategies (Johnson and Spector, 2007) to counter the stress of high job demands (Spoor et al., 2010), and it is related to less turnover (Parsons et al., 2003). Autonomy at work is important not only as a valuable reward, but as a determinant series of results, such as job satisfaction, stress and health (Rossenthal, 2004). Chu (2007) examined the relationship between work autonomy and well-being in Chinese in the United States.
In fact, like these ceremonies renewal the staff power and then will reflect in their work. Communications; there was Lack of communication among employees in the AUBMC. There were problems between doctors and nurses in communication that influenced in the work. For instance, nurses and doctors often refused proper collaboration and undermined each other’s efforts that created a toxic work environment that made nurses unhappy, and in many cases they vented their anger on the floor in front of, and sometimes at, the patients and other staff. Also, there were no training courses that teach staff how to communicate effectively with each other and patients and their relatives.
A number of studies done by different scholars have identified manager’s attitude, organizational culture, personal problems, job content, financial rewards, communication, norms & standards used at work as some of the factors affecting employee performance ((Saeed, et. al. 2013), (Amari, 2014) and (Nassazi, 2013)). The study of Campbell et al. (1993) has identified that employees’ performance is the key element for organizations competitiveness and superior productivity.
Employees who put extra effort often make a big difference in company profits. The employees who do only what the job duties require, and no more, can hamper the progress of a company. It is important to motivate all employees to reach their full potential and maximal level of productivity. Companies that recognize and encourage increased productivity are likely to be more successful than their counterparts that don't. Firstly, employers in workplace try to increase productivity through compensation.