Results Figure 1 This image to the left represents the gel in the gel electrophoresis chamber before being run. As seen here, the DNA samples of the WD, WU, MD, and MU were all underfilled. In other words, there was not enough sample loaded. This was a potential error that could result in no bands after electrophoresis. Figure 2a Figure 2b Figure 2a represents the gel fully run through gel electrophoresis for thirty minutes and figure 2b represents the expected results from the gel electrophoresis run. As seen by figure 2b, there are bands present in all lanes except for land three which is the wild type digested DNA sample. It is very faint, but in lane three of figure 2a, there appears to be a slight band apposed to the …show more content…
Due to this lack of data, it was difficult to answer this question. The purpose of this laboratory experiment was to determine whether the silencing of the FWA gene found in the plant does or does not contribute to the late flowering of the Arabidopsis Thaliana in which we hypothesized we could detect this difference using a restriction enzyme, McrBC, but again, it was difficult to understand if the McrBC was able to detect this because no bands were present. In other words, the hypothesis proclaimed in the laboratory experiment could not be supported or falsified because of the lack of interpretable results to allow us to determine the specific evidence that supports or falsifies the …show more content…
Some of these errors include the excessive addition of the mutant undigested DNA to the MU tube in which the entire sample of the DNA (approximately 4 µL) was added instead of 2.5 µL. The next experimental error was the underloading of the DNA samples into the wells. When the DNA was put into the well, all of the DNA were underloaded and after the gel undergone electrophoresis, bands were not present. As seen in Figure 2a in the results section, only bands for the marker were shown and the rest were not shown. Comparing this to the expected results reveals that there was an error in this phase of the experiment. Due to the fact that we have no bands present and are thus unable to compare them the expected results, a number of other factors could have gone wrong as well. This could include in the the amplification of DNA by PCR procedure in which one were supposed to load exactly 2.5 µL of the DNA sample to its respective tube. There could have been an inaccurate addition of this amount of DNA to the tubes and thus resulted in not enough digest enzyme in order for bands to be present when run through gel
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The addition signs for each test on serum 2216 illiterates how concentrated the molecule is like purple for example was the most concentrated due to the amount of addition signs in the table. For Macromolecule test 1 and 2 the sample was diluted. Both the concentration and decreased by an equal set of intervals. The volume of distilled water is what was added and the results illustrate how deeply colored each concentration was. Each cup was diluted with the test pertaining to it with a syringe that explain the volume and the concentration is from heating or mixing the sample throughout the investigation.
Both DNA and RNA has a maximum absorbance of 260 nm. The absorbance of 260/280 should be in between 1.8 and 1.9 to represent a pure sample of DNA. If the reading is higher than 1.9 then there is RNA contamination and if the reading is less than 1.8 there is protein contamination.
The initial test conducted after being given unknown bacteria number 5 was a Three-Step gram stain. This test was conducted utilizing aseptic technique. I first aseptically prepared a smear using unknown bacteria number 5 and heat fixed the smear. I then flooded the smear with
We accept our hypothesis of the germinated seeds in the dark and the dormant seeds in the dark having a higher rate of cellular respiration then germinated seeds in the light and the dormant seeds in the light. The germinated seeds in the dark had 0mL of change in oxygen levels while the germinated seeds in the light had -.05mL of change in their oxygen levels. The germinated seeds in the dark had a .05mL more for their change in oxygen then the germinated seeds in the light, therefore the germinated seeds in the dark had a higher rate of cellular respiration then the germinated seeds in the light. The dormant seeds in the dark had 0mL of change in their oxygen levels and the dormant seeds in the light had -.16mL of change in their oxygen levels. The dormant seeds in the dark had a .16mL greater change in their
The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the principles of protein assays as well as to learn how to utilize the Beer-Lambert Law by doing various calculations such as how to calculate absorbencies, concentrations, and extinction coefficients. According to the Beer Lambert Law, absorbance is proportional to path length and concentration. For this experiment we will be learning how to use a spectrophotometer which measures transmitted light intensity. Spectrophotometers measure wavelength based on the color produced. In addition, we will be using standard curves to calculate protein concentrations.
.05 grams Measure of time +/- .5 seconds The same degree of uncertainty was added to each trial of each plant. This is because the same materials were used for each one. One limitation of the lab was the fact that the leaf disks of the plant Solanum lycopersicum were very thin.
Wavelength A graph was plotted on MS Excel with absorbance on the y-axis and wavelength (nm) on the x-axis. The absorption rate initially increased until the peak of 440 nm was reached (see Figure 1). After the decline of the first peak, the rate increased until the next peak was reached at 670 nm. The peak absorbance region was at 440 nm with an absorption rate of about .818 and at 670 nm with an absorption rate of about .431. Thus, the highest absorbance values were reached at the wavelengths 440 nm and 670 nm.
• Molecular weights of protein bands in each of the three unknown samples B, C, and D were determined using the standard curve. On the Y-axis, the corresponding migration distance (cm) was found and traced to meet the line of the standard curve. This point was then traced to meet the corresponding place on the x-axis, in which molecular weight of known samples were plotted.
Western Blotting and SDS-PAGE are techniques used to identify proteins. These experiments were combined in order to find specific protein inside an antibody. The techniques are aiming to accomplish the separation of protein in a given sample through SDS-PAGE (also known as electrophoresis), and identification of different proteins in a specific organism by the use of antigens through Western Blotting (or protein immunoblot). In general, these experiments are used to localize the protein of interest by antibonding specificity and molecular mass. For this laboratory experiment in particular, students conducted the experiment properly by following the precautions and steps correctly.
To prevent this issue, the plate would be incubated throughout the majority of the experiment. (Obrien et al., 2000) Another weakness is the possibility of false positives or negatives that would result from the drug inhibiting or inducing enzymatic activity that fluoresces the Alamar Blue dye without actually altering viability of the cells (Quent et al.,
Once the loading solutions were made and the agarose gel electrophoresis apparatus was set up, the solutions were dispensed into the wells of the gel, as well as a reference solution. The gel image gathered from the gel electrophoresis allowed for the analysis of the plasmid DNA and the effects the restriction endonucleases, Hind III and Hinc II, had on it. While analyzing the gel image, it was apparent that based on the reference solution in lane 1 and the mark in lane 3, the Hind III solution, that the number of base pairs should be the same. Also it was apparent that lane 5, the Hinc II solution, had 4 marks. By measuring the migration distance in centimeters and plotting against the log(# of base pairs(bp)) for the standard in lane 1 the linear trendline equation provided by the calibration curve allows for the number of base pairs to be found for the marks in lane 3 (Hind III) and lane 5 (Hinc II).