Task-1 Describe how and to what extent does Steve jobs careers illuminate the difference between leadership and management styles? The choice of Steve Jobs for this case study draws in many aspects of the theories of leadership and reminds us of one further thing: that successful leaders may sometimes divide the world into two camps: those who adore the leader and those who cannot stand him(or her). This phenomenon is not so unusual: it was true of Margaret Thatcher’s political leadership, for example, and of many military leaders over the centuries.
Leadership is an essential task in management (Weihrich, et al., 2008), as it is an important factor that contributes enormously to the over-all wellbeing of the organisations (Odumeru & Ifeanyi, 2013). As stated by Cox (2001), transactional and transformational are two important types of leadership. The differentiation amongst these two types of leadership was initially made by Downton (1973), as cited in (Barnett, et al., 2001), and introduced by Burns (1978) in his descriptive work on political leaders. Transformational Leaders Transformational leadership is also defined as the way of influencing the employees by “broadening and elevating followers’ goals and providing them with confidence to perform beyond the expectations specified in
1. Introduction Individuals with leadership qualities are everywhere, if you can identify them. From within the family household, the school your children attend, to the more obvious; the workplace and political environments. However, what makes an individual a leader and what makes that leader an effective one? Can anyone be a leader?
Their philosophy is “whatever-it takes” and delegates the frontline managers to lead “it is your business, your division, your market, your stores, your aisle and your customers (Home Depot 2009).” Finally , transformational leaders by definition seek to transform. Sometime when a organization does not transform it’s, employees become unhappy and leaders will
This kind of leadership has limited potential for success. Transforming leadership occurs when one or more people engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers connect with each other and help each other to get better in terms of motivation and morality. According to Burns, this transformation and change of leaders and followers is due to transforming leadership. This leadership can give favorable long term performance. According to Burns the two leadership styles- transforming and transactional are completely opposite to each other and which exist exclusively.
Two of the theories of leadership are transactional and transformational. Transactional leadership is setting clear expectations of an individual and using rewards or punishment to achieve results, while transformational leadership is identifying the need for change and trying to achieve the change. Two Canadian public administrative leaders who show these leadership skills were Tommy Douglas and Sir George Arthur French. Tommy Douglas was able to show transformational leadership through creating healthcare, Canada-wide pension plan and bargaining rights for civil servants; while Sir George Arthur French was able to show transactional leadership by leading his men across western |Canada, and he showed transformation leadership by challenging the Canadian government. Tommy Douglas would have been seen as a great leader in the Behavioural Era due to his ability to identify the need for change and the betterment of society; however, he would have not been seen as a great leader in the Personality Era due to him alienating the Saskatchewan doctors in his healthcare implementation.
Transactional Leadership is based on the principles of the social exchange theory, in which an individual would expect to give and receive benefits or rewards when engaging in a social interaction (Sullivan, 2012). The interaction will cease if one or both person decides that the exchange of benefits and rewards are no longer worthwhile. Transactional Leadership theory also focus on the task that need to be carried out and makes sure they are done the right way as compared to Transformational Leadership theory which focus on staff empowerment (Marquis and Huston, 2015). A nurse manger in a department or ward is a good example of Transactional Leadership theory.
Transformational leadership is a charismatic leader or manager who believes he has a clear vision for the future of the organization that will attract success. Besides, he will also motivate employees to adapt to changes in organization and also guide them as well. A transformational leader will try to get employees enthusiastically on board with his or her ideas and continually uses the vision of a brighter future as a key motivation for employees to be more productive and efficient to adapting changes. Lastly, the transactional leader can create a plan for success of organization and tell each employees how their contribution plays an important part of the organization’s success. The next leadership style is democratic leadership.
Definition According to Organizational Management and Leadership: A Christian Perspective by Anita Saterlee, research done by J.M Burns indicated that transactional leaders lead by understanding the underlying principles of management and then applying those principles in the workplace. Transactional Leaders will guide followers to achieve organizational goals, guide and motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying roles and task requirements, and define the purpose of the organizations’ existence to followers and then provide them with the plans and means to attain goals (2013, p. 5) Summary This article was published through the Canadian Center of Science and Education.
Transformational Approach Transformational leadership style work towards high levels of communication from a management to meet goals. Leaders are meant to motivate employees and augment productivity and efficiency through communication and high visibility. This style of leadership really does need the involvement of management to meet goals. Leaders focus on the big picture within an organization and delegate smaller tasks to the team to accomplish goals. Transformational leadership proves to be efficient not only in business, but in all other sectors where it is used.
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP Transformational Leadership is defined as leadership style focused on effecting revolutionary change in organizations through a commitment to the organization’s vision. (Sullivan & Decker, 2001) Transformational leaders are usually given higher position and are known for their charismatic sense and ability to develop high visions and regards in the work they do. They often give their best performances due to the low morale or self esteem Example: Steve Job, Bill Gates and Ratan Tata. As the existentialist rightly said, we always have a choice, in doing what we already have done or doing that which we have never done.
Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple Inc. is the leader about whom, the current assignment will be based upon. Jobs depicted the execution of an autocratic leadership style in his initial years but changed to transformational leadership style later. Allio (2010) criticized the autocratic leadership style of Jobs for being arrogant and egoistic. It is thus analyzed from the study that the perceptions of the followers regarding the leader matters considerably for a leader to become a role model. However, Hurley-Hanson, and Giannantonio (2013) highlighted the effective persuasive leadership style of Steve Jobs through his initiative of discussing the vision and strategic plans for NeXT with his employees. Jobs was able to obtain an investment of $20 million from the business leader Ross Perot after the airing of this program.
“The study of history has been a study of leaders – what they did and why they did it” (Bass, 2008: 4). New contemporary styles of leadership have emerged that arguably are more successful in the long term (Dawson & Andriopoulos, 2014). This report critically evaluates different styles of leadership to determine if a transformational style will have a more decisive effect on employee motivation and organisational culture culminating in long term prosperity of the business. Fresh perspectives to leadership are required if organisations are to be successful in times of change while at the same time increasing employee morale (Conger, 1999). Studies done by Burns (1978) differentiates between transactional leaders and transformational leaders.
The term "transactional" refers to the fact that this type of leader essentially motivates subordinates by exchanging rewards for performance. A transactional leader generally does not look ahead in strategically guiding an organization to a position of market leadership; instead, these managers are solely concerned with making sure everything flows smoothly today. Advantages As stated above both leadership styles are needed for guiding an organization to success, and it was thanks to that approach that Fight Club was such a successful organization.
1.1 ELON BACKGROUND OF MUSK Elon Reeve Musk is a Canadian American businessman, engineer, and innovator born in South Africa, June 28th 1971. Elon Musk is one of the most notable innovators of the 21st century. Elon’s academic achievements in regards to higher studies began with 2 Bachelor’s Degrees, 1 in physics and the other in economics, and he would, soon after, enroll in Stanford university to begin a PhD. However, Elon dropped out of the course after a mere 2 days in order to pursue entrepreneurial activities in the fields of sustainable improvements in standards of living, space exploration and much more. 1.2 MUSK AT TESLA