Paper Chromatography Research Paper

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Chromatography is a separation technique, that was developed by an Italian-born botanist called Mikhail Tswett, who was from Russia in 1906. Chromatography was used to study plant pigments as well as, separate parts of colourless mixtures, to identify and name amino acids present within. The word chromatography originates from the Greek word ‘khroma’ which means colour. There are several forms of chromatography but they all work on the same principle. Some types of chromatography are; paper, thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). However, paper chromatography is used the most often. Chromatography is used in many different places in life, including; pharmaceutical companies…show more content…
When the chromatography paper is placed in the solvent, the solvent penetrates the paper by capillary action. Capillary action is the movement of liquid within the spaces of the material, due to adhesion, cohesion and surface tension. The adhesive intermolecular forces between the liquid and solid are stronger than the cohesive intermolecular forces in the liquid. Solubility also affects the chromatographic results as, the more soluble the pigment is the further it will travel up the chromatograph paper. Another affecting factor is the molecular weight, the substances with a smaller molecular weight will travel higher up the paper. Polarity also affects how the substances move. Substances with a higher polarity will travel fast up the paper but will not go as far. Polarity has an effect on how attracted the chemical is to another substance. As some molecules have a positively charged side and negatively charged side, the opposites attract. When the charge difference is bigger, it means that the molecule is more polar. When the polarity of the solvent is increased, the components of the mixture move faster during the chromatography experiment. Therefore, if the polarity is decreased the components will move

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