This method is only useful phenols and certain heterocyclic compounds such as pyrroles and indoles. This reaction is conducted in basic solution. Yields are generally low, seldom rising above 50%. Haller-Bauer reaction This reaction is known for the cleavage of ketones with sodium amide. The reaction is usually applied only to nonenolizable ketones, most often to ketones of the form ArCOCR3, where the products R3CCONH2 are not easily attainable by other methods.
Chemical properties Pyridine is miscible with water and virtually all organic solvents.  It is weakly basic, and with hydrochloric acid it forms a crystalline hydrochloride salt that melts at 145–147 °C.  Most chemical properties of pyridine are typical of aheteroaromatic compound Molecular properties Pyridine has a conjugated system of six π electrons that are delocalized over the ring. The molecule is planar and, thus, follows the Hückel criteria for aromatic systems. In contrast to benzene, the electron density is not evenly distributed over the ring, reflecting the negative inductive effect of the nitrogen atom.
1.00 gram of fine white salicylic acid powder was weighed in a clean, dry 125mL Erlenmeyer flask. 3mL of strong smelling, clear colorless acetic anhydride liquid was then measured in a 10mL graduated cylinder in the fume hood, and poured into the Erlenmeyer flask. The flask was then gently swirled while 5 drops of 85% phosphoric acid was added to the flask. During this time, the solution in the flask was whitish and cloudy. Phosphoric acid was used in the synthesis to become a source of H+ ions that would catalyze the reaction.
12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical. This can be accomplished by the use of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS) as Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution (NAS) is not possible because of the electron-rich benzene ring, which does not have substituents that withdraw electrons. Since the density in the
The selectivity to methanol was found to be larger than 95%, with the low conversion condition and CO2 as the only by-product. The skeletal copper catalyst deactivated fast, this was found to be from fouling caused by polymeric material building up. Copper chromite catalyst did not experience deactivation. Monti et al.  investigated gas-phase hydrogenolysis of methyl formate over silica supported copper catalyst.
Moreover, in the high temperature oxidation of methane, the rate of the governing reaction CH4 + O2 CH3 + HO2 is much slower than of the similar reactions of the higher order alkanes . Therefore, the nonlinear promoting of DME addition on ignition is not observed for higher order alkanes at high
She was asked to develop a synthetic material that might offer a lighter, more fuel-efficient alternative to metal reinforcements in car tyres. She stumbled on a surprising compound, a liquid crystalline solution that could be transformed into astoundingly strong fibers. Of them, what we know as Kevlar. Topic 2: Science Napalm’s origins stem directly from the use of flamethrowers during WWI. Even though widely used, flamethrowers were still ineffective, being extremely cumbersome (soldiers had to carry both a petroleum tank and a gas-filled tank, both highly flammable and vulnerable to enemy fire) and unable to create a fire that burned for any prolonged period of time.
Experimental data determined that there was a difference of .003g between using the single solvent in comparison to the paired solvent. Data suggests that Water is the best solvent that will allow for better saturation and the best recrystallization of benzoic acid, this is largely due to water being a polar molecule whose properties allow for carboxylic acid groups, such as the one found in benzoic acid, to disassociate and donate protons to the water
The melting points for the acidic and neutral compounds were hence too low, and the melting point for the basic compound was too high. The errors in the acidic and neutral compounds can be explained by impurities in the crude product, along with the presence of the solvents, ethyl acetate and water, which disturbed the stability of the compounds, and led to lower melting points over a larger range. The abnormally high melting point of the base may have been observed due to improper separation of the acid and base solutions in the separation funnel. Some of the acidic compound may have entered the basic solution and reacted with the base to form a high melting point salt, making the melting point of the base appear abnormally high. The Mel-Temp was also turned on a high setting accidentally, so it is possible that the temperature rose too quickly to get a good reading of the melting
After recrystallization and purification, the percent yield was 63.620% (0.724 grams) and the melting point was 262-263°C (see Table 1). The literature melting is 262-264°C. The low percent yield could be due to lack of recrystallization of the crude product. In addition, some of the crystals may not have been transferred to the funnel from the flask. The IR analysis indicated a distinctive peak at 1778.43 representing ketone, and another peak at 1226.73 representing ether.
Alcohols 1-Octanol, and 1-butanol were both found to be soluble in hexane while methyl alcohol was determined to be insoluble. when water was added to the different alcohols the opposite reaction occurred compared to hexane. 1-Octanol, and 1-butanol were both insoluble while methyl alcohol was the only soluble alcohol. 3.
Today some of the top manufactures are: Borden Chemicals and Plastics, Dow Chemical, Oxymar, and PPG Industries Inchttp://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search2/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+107-06-2. Japan, Europe and the United States alone manufacture about 18 billion kg of Ethylene dichloride springer link. Ethylene dichloride has large economic value based on the fact that its hydrogens can be removed easily by applying heat. This property allows it to be a practical choice in chemical synthesis as it minimizes cost and labour when manufacturing other chemicals.
And because Canola Oil is high in Omega-3 fatty acids, which easily become rancid and foul-smelling when subjected to oxygen and high temperatures, it must be deodorized. The standard deodorization process removes a large portion of the Omega-3 fatty acids by turning them into trans fatty acids. Although the Canadian government lists the trans content of Canola at a minimal 0.2 percent, research at the University of Florida at Gainesville, found trans levels as high as 4.6 percent in commercial liquid oil.The consumer has no clue about the presence of trans fatty acids in Canola Oil because they are not listed on the label”(Fallon, S). Today, 90% of Canola is genetically modified and is partly hydrogenated oil. This modern combination can cause many side effects such as abnormal blood platelets and higher risk of Cancer due to the hydrogenation process.
The slightly negative end of another hydrogen chloride particle will become attracted to the other end of the particle which has a slight positive charge. Therefore the two dipoles will become drawn together because the electrons are not shared between the two particles of hydrogen chloride. The melting point of hydrogen chloride is -85.05 Celsius however water has a boiling point of 100 degrees. Therefore this proves that hydrogen bonding in water is more powerful than hydrogen chloride because water is more polar than HCL . Water has a higher boiling water because more energy is needed to break the water molecules apart in hydrogen chloride.