Cohen (2004 p.120) still holds a positive attitude towards the objective model, especially in the context of official school education as its aim is to offer learners a desirable changes. Instructional objectives According to Maken and Morrsion (2013,p.3), instructional objectives play the significant role in the process of curriculum designers. Marsh (200) explained that instructional objectives were adopted by teachers to aid the instructional process which can offer a clearer direction and avoid vagueness of ideas(p.33). In terms of learning and teaching approach, Cunningham et al (2007) explains that the objective model focuses on the learning process is a linear or a step-by-step approach (p.6). From the perspective of pedagogy, the teacher always plays the leading role in the classroom teaching and decides which part will be taught.
As developed by Robin Alexander since the early 2000s, dialogic teaching harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend students’ thinking and advance their learning and understanding. It helps the teacher more precisely to diagnose students’ needs, frame their learning tasks and assess their progress. It empowers the student for lifelong learning and active citizenship. Dialogic teaching is not just any talk. It is as distinct from the question-answer and listen-tell routines of traditional teaching as it is from the casual conversation of informal
Discussion In a learning context, the teacher should provide the most effective condition for the learners to achieve optimum learning. Vygotsky mentioned that the “gap” between what learners can do easily and what learners can do with the help of a more knowledgeable other based on his concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Thus, the most effective learning takes place when the task given to the learners is a level higher than the learners’ actual knowledge (i+1). Knowledge is best transferred when the teacher co-operate and discuss with the learners. The importance of scaffolding is its contribution to the teacher-learning relationship.
It drives learning paradigm, which is aimed at student learning, and focused on what the student does. Eventually, besides providing a grade to students, it fosters their commitment by supporting active learning. Therefore, the evaluation process should be authentic, fair, valid and reliable. How to evaluate? The answer to the question how to evaluate heavily depends on what should be evaluated.
The use of pedagogical techniques to produce learning outcomes for students is the form of producing quality in teaching and learning. It involves several dimensions, including the effective design of content mastery, a variety of learning contexts (including guided independent study and collaborative learning, experimentation, etc. ), using feedback, and effective assessment of learning outcomes. It also involves well-adapted learning equipment and student support services. Support for quality teaching takes place at three related levels: At the institution-wide level: including projects such as strategy design, and support to organization and internal quality systems.
The way teachers learn may be more like the ways students learn than we have previously understood. Learning and organizational theorists are teaching us that people learn best through active involvement and by thinking about and articulating what they learned (Resnick 1986; Schon 1991). Teacher development in recent years has taken centre stage and has been viewed as critical and an essential enabler for the development of students and the education system. Practices, Processes, and policies built on this view encourage teachers to involve them as learners just as they would propose their students to be life- long learners. Does this view translate as practice at the ground level in schools, and how much has teacher development progressed
Friesen et al (2013) supplemental evidence ‘As outlined by the Galileo Educational Network (2008) rubric to guide inquiry and supported by a large body of research, a constellation of processes needs to be in place to maximize the impact on inquiry-based education. These elements include scaffolding activities, formative feedback loops, and the adoption of powerful questioning strategies to guide the learning process’. There consists a strength of evidence where we can prove through examination that a social constructive approach to learning remains preferable to traditional liberal education lecture style methods of teaching. A transfer of knowledge continues optimal when students are engaged in making decisions about their learning, but passively absorbing information persists as an approach still often used today since we can easily record data that makes instructors look accountable to stakeholders throughout the education field. Research questions that clearly state inquiry based learning proves superior to other methods gives my research paper an advantage by stating that learning theories apply to the overall development of students.
This model recognizes that the curriculum involves an active, interactive and reactive process that must encourage reasoning, experimentation and critical thinking between the parties involved. The teacher must expect, prepare for and allow an engaging encounter in an open interactive experience. With the process model, the same data will be taught to two difference groups which would involve two different experiences. This model is student driven and, rather than just involving downloading of information from the teachers side, can result in a more effective learning on the student
The right to education is not only right to access education but also the right to receive an education having a good quality that is why quality must be at the core of education because it really influences the students what to learn, how they will going to learn and most important, what benefits they can draw based from their education (EFA GMR, 2005). Quality education also deals with the children, youth and adults’ welfare because whatever happens inside the classroom or other educational institutions contributes to the future welfare of every individual (UNESCO, 2015). Quality education is a very big issue for us. Because we are still improving our education quality, there are still some challenges that we are facing now internationally
Using a framework to guide such reflection enhances the value of the activity and makes teaching more purposeful, thoughtful, and rewarding. (1996, pg. 53) Many instruments designed to measure teacher effectiveness already exist, as do lists of essential teaching behaviors. This study was designed to synthesize existing research, rubrics and frameworks and produce a list that is common, succinct and observable. Recognizing that teaching is an extremely complex process, and that students and classroom contexts vary greatly; this list of practices of effective teaching does not cover every nuance of teaching and learning, but rather, provides a framework for the core, essential elements of effective instruction.