According to (Carlos A. Guerrero F et. al), biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil and animals fats that undergoes a chemical reaction known as transesterification. The process breaks down the oils molecules into constituent molecules producing biodiesel as the main and glycerin as the byproduct. (Khemani, 2011). Biodiesel uses the same properties of diesel as fuel for cars.
Energy plays a vital role in the modern human community as we power our computers, household utilities and many other important inventions. As the population of the world grows, our fossil fuel reserves are depleting quicker. Fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas accounted for 81.5 percent of global primary energy consumption in 2015. The burning of fossil fuels have greatly contributed to global warming, however if we were to ultimately eliminate fossil fuels from energy sources, the production of energy will undoubtedly fall behind the demand. The solution proposed is to reduce the demand for fossil fuels by replacing some with a more sustainable and renewable alternative- biofuels.
Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, used cooking oils, and animal fats by the production process called “trans-esterification” to convert those mixtures to the chemicals which have long chain mono alkyl esters or fatty acid methyl esters which can be used as “fuel” for vehicles. Approximately, 100 pounds of vegetable oil react with 10 pounds of alcohol (commonly methanol) in the presence of a catalyst, sodium hydroxide; later, 100 pounds of biodiesel and 10 pounds of glycerol (co-product) can be produced. For the glycerol which can be used for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Therefore, biodiesel can be considered as totally natural, alternative fuel source to be available for using in most of cases as similar as petrol or more specifically, “diesel distilled from petroleum”. Biodiesel is much safer than diesel from petroleum when biodiesel is escaped to the surrounding environment; moreover, it is much less inflammable as biodiesel’s flashpoint is 130°C as compared to petroleum diesel which is only 52°C.
Transesterification process Biodiesel may be produced in batches or continuously by transesterifying triglycerides such as animal fat or vegetables oils with alcohol in presence of a base or acid catalyst. Transesterification process is the process of separating the fatty acids from their glycerol backbone to form fatty acid esters (FAE). Free fatty acid level and moisture percentage are parameters for determining the viability of transesterification process. Transesterification is classified as give below. 1.
An atmospheric pollution comes from petroleum diesel when their combustion gives a primer or source for GHG (Sharif et al., 2008). Biodiesel is defined as a fuel made up from monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from bio-oils, usually fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and can be produced from vegetable oil (Speranza et al. 2015). Macro algae can produce the biodiesel and has a lower lipid compare to the microalgae (Sharif et al., 2008). In biology, seaweed is macro algae that live in fresh water and sea water that act as a primary producer in the water.
Review of Related Literature and Studies As the population grows, the overall consumption of energy resources increases. As a result, number of non-renewable resources decreases which lead to increase of prices and demand for fossil fuels. Bioethanol can be an alternative to fossil fuels. Local Bioethanol Fuel Blend Percentage There are 12 countries; Brazil, France, the United States, Indonesia, Philippines, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Argentina, Republic of South Africa, Kenya, Thailand and Sudan stated by the Department of Energy of the Philippines, which are making use of produced Bioethanol for fuel. Because of its properties that is comparable to the refined gasoline.
1.11 Motivation for the work: Growing concern regarding energy resources and the environment has increased interest in the study of alternative sources of energy. Increased demand of diesel fuel against supply makes alternative fuels an important current issue for all researchers in the field. Another important factor is “Global Warming” that motivates us to make effort to reduce emission from tailpipe of automotive or stationary engines. It is seen that nitromethane have high auto-ignition temperature, high oxygen content and very little carbon content, hydrogen content when compared with diesel. Nitromethane also increased combustion efficiency and improve cetane number.
Over these few decades, fossil fuel reserves are depleting in a fast rate due to continue usage and the rising price of crude oil have triggered the energy crisis all over the world. However, in order to overcome this problem, biomass which is derived from renewable materials has become a new alternative of fuel to replace the traditional fossil fuels. Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) which is derived from vegetables oil or animal fats is considered one of the best biomass-fuel to replace fossil fuel. Biodiesel is a renewable energy, lack aromatic compounds, highly biodegradable, and also has low SOx emission (Nyoman Puspa Asri, 2012). Biodiesel has gained the attention internationally as an alternative fuel since it is highly
However, due to the rising demand of biofuels, more food crops are being abstracted away from the global food manufacturing industry, which has consequently resulted in soaring food prices across the globe. Also, competition between food and fuel continues to increase. With this, the importance of the selection of first-generation raw material for the biofuel production takes over. Due to the limitations of first-generation biofuels, second-generation ones are introduced. Second-generation biofuels are from utilized non-food crops or agricultural waste specifically lignocellulosic materials.