ESL Vocabulary Learning

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Background knowledge on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Learning
Vocabulary acquisition is an essential process for ESL learners to develop proficiency and competence in target language. Vocabulary power enables effective writing and fluent speaking. It demonstrates both: students’ knowledge acquisition and knowledge production. It improves students’ incorporated language skills such as speaking, listening, writing and reading. Among the early researches of vocabulary learning in the first language (e.g., Boettcher, 1980; Carey, 1982; Clark, 1973; Dale, O' Rourke, & Bamman, 1971; Deighton, 1959; Eichholz & Barbe, 1961; Gentner, 1975), the research by Nagy et al. (1985) is specifically considerable. In the course of their study, they established a methodology
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It includes students’ ability to deduce the meaning of new vocabularies from the contextual clues. Incidental learning happens more specifically through extensive reading in input-rich environments, although at a rather slow rate (Coady, 2001). As stated by Harmer (2003) and Nation (2001), extensive reading is an enjoyable reading situation where a teacher persuades learners to select what they want to read for themselves from reading materials at a level they can comprehend. Karashen's (2003) comprehension hypothesis emphasized that comprehensible input is an essential and appropriate condition for language improvement and extensive reading programs seek to improve reading fluency, and reading skills generally, while simultaneously amalgamate knowledge of previously encountered grammatical structures and vocabulary. Other searches have stressed advantages such as enhanced motivation to acquire the new language and refresh confidence in reading (e.g., Brown, 2000; Waring & Takaki, 2003). In a later research accomplished by Horst (2005), a modified vocabulary acquisition scale, immediate posttest measure showed that of 35 new vocabularies presented for learning in self-selected graded reading materials, 18 vocabularies were acquired: a gain of 51 %. These gains are similar to those accomplished in the A Clockwork Orange research performed by Saragi et al. (1978) in their research; students were capable…show more content…
The students get themselves fully involved in the process of decoding the meaning through the clues presented in the text. They consider and reconsider about the new vocabularies including cognitive process that enables the students recall the vocabularies for a longer period of time. Cognitive process involves both receptive and productive aspects of vocabulary. Students grasp not only the meanings in the provided text but the related grammatical patterns, common lexical sets and typical association of the word with the context. Learning vocabulary through extensive reading also expands students’ fluency. Students look at group of vocabularies rather than each individual vocabulary while reading. Hulstijn and Laufer (2001) emphasized that the vocabularies that students meet in incidental vocabulary acquisition will be remembered in the long term memory and could be applied more confidently in various settings. In contrast, Ahmad (2012)
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