Aural means related to sense of hearing and oral related to verbal communication. Surely when the student is getting better in both listening and speaking they will reach communicative competence. Communicative competence refers to the level of language learning that enables language users to convey their message to others and to understand others’ messages within specific context (Hymes, 1972). Of course to reach this competence, both listening and speaking improvement is really needed. The Aural-Oral approach is very effective to be implemented in English Language Teaching in case to build communicative competence of student.
For teachers to teach reading effectively their lessons should include vocabulary, decoding skills, fluency and comprehension strategies. Using these techniques and strategies taught in class students can make connections to build up their reading comprehension. As we discussed with our first article, students who have better automaticity obtain more cognitive abilities that they can put forth to work with reading comprehension. Therefore, reading fluency, the use of accuracy and automaticity, connects to student’s reading comprehension. A student’s reading success depends of their reading
It involves reading a text repeatedly until the learner reads without making errors. Repeated reading is a credible strategy for reading instruction because it guarantees that readers grasp the content. Readers improve their reading speeds, develop sight word vocabulary and gain confidence in their reading abilities. In classroom instruction, the teacher selects a short passage and reads it out loud several times as the learners pay attention. The teacher takes time to explain the passage, providing a purpose for reading.
Shared Reading, is where the teacher models and support students. Generally, the teacher reads for enjoyment first then later, the teacher may focus on theme, title, cover, illustrations, and predictions. Significantly, it is during this type of reading that student contribution is strongly encouraged. Language concepts are emphasised, and in this way, typical phonics/grammar knowledge is strengthened. Guided Reading is an instructional reading strategy during which a teacher works with small groups of children who have similar reading processes and needs.
Define Content Area Literacy (CL): Content Area literacy is the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline. Content literacy is connected to all subject areas, and has the potential to maximize content acquisition: 3. What are the differences between DL and CL? Content area literacy strategies are the basic set of strategies students use when reading and responding to texts, with little differentiation being made across the content-area subjects. For example, students may learn techniques for determining important information, making inferences, asking questions, and summarizing.
197) agree with the fact that intrinsic motivation is better that extrinsic motivation, and say that motivation generates a commitment that makes the students learn the language. They add that intrinsic motivation is present when external motives are inexistent. On the other hand extrinsic motivation is generated when the student is expecting some kind of reward after learning the language. The reward is usually observable. Intrinsic motivation is more important for learning English and achieves success.
Teaching student’s comprehension while their schemas are expanding is a great idea. While teaching students how to read fluently, teach them how to make connections, visualize, ask question, and how to make inferences. If this is taught to children as they learn how too fluently it will expand their “how to read” schema. The idea of how schema could help comprehension that the article provided could lead to many discoveries. Teaching comprehension at this age and getting students to actively ask questions and make inferences will help them excel in future classes.
This is a milestone that children reach when reading because they learn how to read from top to bottom, from left to right and begin to understand what the purpose for punctuation is. In this stage children also start to use both upper and lower case letters in their writing. At this age their attention span becomes longer and they can start to read their own writing which can be very exciting. Educators can support this stage by incorporating writing activities during the day. This way children have time to practice writing and enhance their understanding of letters and sounds.
The sociocultural foundation of development is important because the reader and writer considers their daily social and cultural experience's, values and knowledge to contribute to their literacy skills in reading and writing. Researchers believe that learners draw attention to oral language, the aspects of language in serving daily needs, social phenomenon in language literacy, preschool experiences and home engagement language as related to accomplishments in school. The best practices in word recognition, and language comprehension, strategic knowledge, and reading-writing connections includes phonics awareness instruction, sight words, Alphabet learning instruction and sound letter instruction. According to Piasta , published programs of instruction in Alphabet learning has become one of the most primary objects for early literacy because it promotes familiar letters forms, sounds and names. Alphabet knowledge instruction correlates to strategic knowledge and the learners' ability to apply their phonological awareness.
Based on the information previously presented about early sequential bilingual education, there are some strategies and materials that foster second language acquisition in the early years and will be depicted below. These strategies include songs, flash cards, videos, games, and stories which serve as a tool to engage students, boost their motivation, creativity and curiosity, and well as to practice the vocabulary previously learned. To begin with, some authors explain the importance of implementing songs in the bilingual classroom. According to Murphey (1992), songs are tools that help teachers foster and improve their students' knowledge, this is due to a phenomenon called “The song stuck in my head”, this is a phenomenon that is compounded