According to Herzberg’s (Herzberg et al., 1959; Herzberg, 1996) Motivation-Hygiene theory, job satisfaction differs according to a variety of personal characteristics. Kinicki et al. (2002) and Cote and Morgan (2002) also suggest that personal characteristics can have a significant impact on job satisfaction. Other factors found to be significantly associated with job-satisfaction include gender, length of service, and education (Clark, 1997). Furthermore, researchers have also stressed that individuals from different occupations desire different outcomes from their jobs and that these preferences tend to remain consistent within occupational groups (Lawler and Porter, 1967).
When applying these models on real-life cases, some problems may occur due to their limitations. For equity theory, since employees’ perceptions of equity are different, a particular level of inequity would lead to employees’ different reactions. Some employees may feel unfair and think about leaving their jobs to look for better opportunities. As a result, they may be emotionally estranged from organizations and put less effort into their work which could reduce the quality of work (Ananvoranich, 2004:88). For goal-setting theory, as Ceresia (2011:71-75) stresses, it is hard for managers to measure the degree of goals’ difficulty.
Workers seek a fair balance between what they put into their jobs (inputs) and what they get out of it (outcomes); employees want to be treated fairly and likely to compare their treatment to that of their peers. This theory recognizes the motivational force of organizational space when rewarding for performance and how favoritism and inequities in the system can lead to job dissatisfaction and
Research suggests that genetic factors influence certain aspects of personality (example, positive affectivity – negative affectivity, emotional stability, and extraversion) and these factors, in turn play a role in job satisfaction. (Judge, 2003) VALUE THEORY OF JOB SATISFACTION This theory takes a broader look at the question of what makes people satisfied. This theory argues that almost any factor can be source of job satisfaction so long as it is something that people value. Thus value theory focuses on discrepancies between what people have and what they want, the greater those discrepancies, the more dissatisfied they will be. This approach to job satisfaction implies that an effective way to satisfy workers is to find out what they want and to the extent possible, give it to them.
The current times exude a fundamental shift from simplification and standardisation at work towards laying a deeper focus on specific job properties, suggesting a transformation within the realm of work. The inconsistencies in Motivation-Hygiene Theory and Job Characteristics Theory have unfolded interest in researching the link between people and the kind of work they do. This essay will first critically discuss the ideals of changing landscape of work whilst carefully measuring job characteristics. It will then extend and refine essential work characteristics, identify new moderating variables & mechanisms and outline outcomes & antecedents by looking at broader perspectives and ways of redesigning jobs; all radiating their profound impact
(Robbins and Judge) These core job dimensions are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. The job dimensions explained are as they apply to the position of the QAR previously discussed. The skill variety scores high, as it requires individuals that fully qualified within their respective area, utilizes cross-training and expertise to improve their flexibility within the unit. Their task identity is high due in part to their high skill variety, because of this, they have the flexibility to inspect various aircraft systems, perform audits, and examine programs beyond their general field. Task significance is the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
Such as job design (Wall and martins 1994, Wong and Campion 1991, Ilgen and Hollenbeck 1992, Griffin and McMahan 1994). Wall and Martin (1994) said that job design was centered on “the characteristics of jobs and how these affect people’s attitudes and behaviour”. In trying to define job design, Wong and Campion (1991) said that jobs consist of tasks and in order for the motivational impact of these tasks to be understood; the relationship between the tasks should be examined. However, these are little evidence on the contribution made by
THEORIES OF JOB-SATISFACTION- There are several differences of opinion amongst experts regarding the various components and theories of job satisfaction. Even though they may be different and varying but somewhere down the line, they are also overlapping. The prominent theories are categorized into two types- Content theories and Process Theories. (Foster, 2000). Content Theories- the content theories try to identify the specific things affecting the satisfaction levels of an employee.
1.2 Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall, and is the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs. There are many theories that explain the job satisfaction and various factors influencing it. A few of the theories that support the current study are listed below. Dispositional Theory: It is probably the only theory in job satisfaction that focuses in detail on the nature and innate behaviour of an individual. This theory states that one’s personality is an important determinant of the satisfaction level the person gets from the job.
Individual performance is a core concept within work and organizational psychology. The process theories of motivation which are used at work consist of equity theory, expectancy theory, the Porter-Lawler Model and goal-setting theory. John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, proposed Equity Theory on job motivation in 1965. His theory suggested that workers are motivated by the desire to be treated equitably or fairly. For example if employees feel they are receiving fair treatment, their motivation level will be maintain and an increase in performance maybe expected but if they feel there is unequal treatment their motivation level will decrease eventually.