Job commitment is the emotional attachment an individual has to an organization or job. Lee (2008) explicitly states this emotional commitment is the greatest predictor of turnover within a company. Hutchinson (1997) finds higher role ambiguity and role conflict lead to lower job commitment. These studies connect role ambiguity and job commitment to turnover, which negatively impacts the work environment. Since role ambiguity is a major component of job discrepancy, lower job commitment may be a consequence of job discrepancy.
Leniency may let management fail to identify the shortcoming that should be amended and finally company will find it is hard to recognize and terminate the employee that is performing below the standards. While strictness is an antonym of leniency that means manager is over underestimated a job performance of an employee. The situation becomes the worst when both lenient and strict superiors occur in the same company and no action is to be taken to balance the inequities. The lenient managers keep on give high rating to, increase the pay of and also promote those who actually perform an unsatisfactory outcome while a well-performed employee receives a bad appraisal and reward that lower than what he or she actually should take. The company will enter havoc (Mondy.
Internal Vs External Turnover: Like recruitment, turnover can be classified as "internal" or "external". Internal turnover involves employees leaving their current positions and taking new positions within the same organization. Both positive and negative effects of internal turnover exist, and therefore, it may be equally important to monitor this form of turnover as it is to monitor its external counterpart. Internal turnover might be moderated and controlled by typical HR mechanisms, such as an internal recruitment policy or formal succession planning. Internal turnover, called internal transfers, is generally considered an opportunity to help employees in their career growth while minimizing the more costly external turnover.
The workplace is the employee stock source, while the attention is more focused on bureaucratic aspects than on clinical parameters. The worker is in a constant state of tension which, if not be able to manage it properly, may lead to frustration and resignation. ‘Defense trailing’ phase: This is the stage where it made changes in attitude and behavior of the worker, who gradually disinvestment emotional work and expresses cynicism and apathy for others. These changes help reduce the physical and psychological consequences that occur, hoping to enable the worker to survive professionally. (Cherniss, 1980, as cited in Theophilus, 2009) 5) The Model of Pines
Mergers may have affected negatively the employees’ wellbeing and behaviour as they have caused stress, concern, low level of job satisfaction and staff turnover. Nevertheless, some people consider merger as an opportunity to ameliorate the current situation, albeit the feelings of stress and precariousness still exist.
Their reactions include adaption, commitment to new expectations, resistance, dysfunctional behavior or withdrawal. The intention of many M&A is based on the belief of acquirer that they can better utilize the physical capital or human capital of the acquired company, therefore, they seldom provide autonomy for the managers of acquired company and expect them to conform to the preferred management practice of the acquiring company. It creates pressure which may lead to negative attitudes in terms of cooperation, commitment and job satisfaction, and thus result in a high turnover rate of employees. If this situation occurs among top management of acquired company, there will be a more serious impact on the success of the M&A because they are the key asset for the acquired company and are not easily be
Employers can hire temporary workers which can benefit the organizations because less money is spent when people are hired for a short period, and it can in turn have new negotiations with the employees who were lockout to settle disputes. One more advantage of industrial action is that employees have the right to stop work if there is an imminent risk to their health and safety. If this occurs, employees must follow any reasonable direction of their employer to perform other work that is safe and appropriate for them. There are as much demerits of industrial actions as there are merits of industrial actions. Disadvantages are the negative effects of what industrial actions can have on employees or employers.
This outcome could be a result of increase in responsibility of task on employees. According to Carpenter, some employee given extra responsibility may expect a pay increase or some form of benefits and compensation for putting extra time and energy. If this expectation is not met, frustration and dissatisfaction will result in work attitude. Another reason for the negative outcome experienced in HIS Department is that not all employee enjoys having to control how they work; if they are not pleased controlling how they work, they can become frustrated and dissatisfied with their job. With the negative outcome of job enrichment in HIS Department, it is a signal that employees are not motivated with the changes that was put in place.
It is a measuring tool to measure individuals mind set.” FACTOR WHICH AFFECT ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYEE • Biased environment If organization becomes biased towards some selective employee, it create a negative environment in company. It may lead to negative attitude from other employee. • Autocratic leader No one wants to work under autocratic leader, because under autocratic leadership it becomes difficult to put your ideas. it will demotivate employee. • High competition Sometimes throat cutting competition leads to negative attitude towards system, from employee.