Bacteria – the good ones Bacteria are usually associated with sickness and disease. What many people don’t realise is that many strains of bacteria provide health benefits. The digestive tract is one of our most complex and essential organs of the body. For our digestive system to remain functioning well, the body shares a mutualistic relationship with the trillions of microorganisms present. Women’s health Food contains many microorganisms which help the flora in our body to improve our immune system and to convert food into energy.
Fermented foods constitute a significant part of the daily life, not only as nutritive foods, but also as a rich source of microorganisms, including mainly lactic acid bacteria that could also show probiotic characteristics depending on species by keeping healthy gut bacteria and preventing a variety of diseases. Fermenting microorganisms, present in fermentation conditions, transform the raw materials into final products that have improved shelf-life, microbiological and sensory quality with certain health benefits. Although these foods have a variety of beneficial effects, their safety issues should be defined by the studies. In the last decades, more detailed information on the biodiversity of fermented foods has been achieved by the introduction of molecular biology–based methods. The studies on understanding the dynamics and biodiversity of these microorganisms in food fermentations will provide the knowledge of processing and preserving of these foods for the benefit of international communities.
Nutritions, temperature, oxygen, pH, microbial products and antagonistic and synergistic effects are determinant factors which predispose the condition of residue of cutaneous normal flora populations. The ability of enzymes secretions in microorganisms is another factor for their colonization on the surface of the skin; because the presence of microbial extracellular enzymes on the human skin makes a wide range of nutrition accessible for microorganisms (12,
Q1- transduction , transformation , and conjugation in microorganisms . Give a definition and main differences with example . - Transduction : it`s a process of transform the genetic material in bacterial cell where the transform of genetic material occur by virus (bacteriophage) , where the virus transfer the genetic material from the host cell to another host cell , where the virus will initiate another cycle of infection . example : prophages , GTA ( gene transfer agent) . - Transformation : it’s the process when bacterial cell are able to uptake the free DNA from their environment example : B. subtilis is an important for bacterial genetic study but they are not naturally competent , and the transform of these stain is possible only by highly unnatural means such as protoplast electroportion .
In those researches they did surveys, in places like Mexico and Washington’s coast and under the oceans, and saw that due to bacteria’s adaptably their biomass may exceed that of life in oceans. Bacteria also prospers by creating a symbiotic relationship with other plans, like the plants which enable them to convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Symbiotic bacteria also play a significant role in producing vitamins and breaking down food that contains
Among these, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which belongs to the group of polyoxoesters has received intensive attention because it possesses biodegradable thermoplastic properties [Albuquerque et al, 2007]. PHA is synthesized by bacteria under unbalanced growth conditions. Some bacteria have been reported capable to produce PHA as much as 90% (w/w) of dry cells during depletion of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus or magnesium [Madison et al, 1998]. Not only PHA serves as storage compounds of carbon and energy sources, but also as a sink for reducing equivalents for some microorganisms [Schubert et al, 1998]. PHA acts as an ideal storage compound due to its insolubility inside bacterial cytoplasm, which exerts negligible increase in osmotic
 There are microbes, which are beneficial to the human in production of food or the medical and pharmaceutical field. Microbes are biologically wired to carry out certain functions. Some of these functions are – being able to pass on the entire genetic information to the next generation, produce viable offspring to prevent extinction, and lastly being able to adapt and change to environmental changes so that any dire change would not be able to wipe off the entire colony. However there are also microbes that cause harm to the human body. These harmful microbes are termed as pathogens.
Biotech is a beneficial interaction of science and innovation (Ranade, 2008). It is seen to enhance the personal satisfaction in two different ways: (1) through additions from the social estimation of its items, and (2) as a motor of economic development and advancement (Ranade, 2008). Biotech has impacted almost all aspect of human life. Sub-Sectors in Biotechnology industry Biotechnology is broadly classified into three:
There are several human health benefits that have been related with carotenoids. They have been proposed to exhibit protection against a number of health related disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, muscular degeneration, prostate cancer. β-carotene is an important individual from the carotenoid family that has received specific consideration because of its high provitamin A and antioxidant activity. Thus, there is a strong eagerness for utilizing β-carotene and other carotenoids as functional food ingredients in the food