2.3.5 Celebrity-brand/product Congruence While analyzing the influences of a celebrity endorser on consumer attitudes and behaviors, it is critical to take into account of the celebrity-brand/product congruence, is also referred as the match-up hypothesis, which is another important stream in celebrity endorsement research. The match-up hypothesis concerns the necessity for an appropriate fit or a match between the celebrity and the brand or product being endorsed (Ilicic & Webster, 2011; Till & Busler, 1998). Kahle and Homer (1985) also depicted that there should be a fit or congruence between a celebrity endorser and the endorsed product or brand. Advertising effectiveness is enhanced when the celebrity endorser’s image fits or matches with
Three factors in celebrity-source can manipulate the consumer behavior: physical attractiveness of the celebrity, likability and product involvement by the celebrity. In the factors that celebrity-source includes, physical attractiveness plays the major part in the study of consumer behavior. The consumer is largely positively affected by the attractiveness of the celebrity endorser because this leaves remembrance of the product and the brand in consumer’s conscious as well as subconscious mind. This somewhere also puts its impact on consumer’s intentions of purchase of the product. The whole process of attractiveness of the celebrity endorser is directly linked with the acceptance of the
Intuitively, the researchers claimed that collectivistic cultures tend to give higher ratings per se although they mean only a medium level). This will inevitably lead to a distortion of the results. Thirdly, the researchers made use of Hofstede’s national culture model to classify a country’s level of individualism and collectivism. Hofstede’s study was based on a study of one company (IBM). He surveyed the subsidiaries of the company across countries and generalized their behaviours as representative of the entire country.
The research by Rashid et al (2002) asserts that celebrities can assist in the recognition of brand names, create positive feelings towards the brand and create a distinct personality for the endorsed brand. Celebrity endorsement is also believed to generate a greater likelihood of customers’ choosing the endorsed brand due to the existence of factors such as brand trustworthiness. Trustworthiness refers to the honesty and believability of the celebrity. The use of celebrity endorsements in an advertising strategy could enhance the marginal value of the advertisement expenditures and create brand equity. According to Salvatore and Washington (2007), the particular product – endorser combinations result in better overall attitude towards the product, greater intent to purchase the advertised product and more credibility for the endorser.
Occasionally I am even tempted to pick the magazine up to read more. We consume celebrity’s private lives as if it is a valuable entity. The growing obsession with celebrities can influence an individual to develop the same opinions and traits as the famous person in mind. A number of people even go to great lengths such as plastic surgery to look similar to their favorite celebrity. Culture identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
What is it that attract us to special someone? Surprisingly, looks, money, power and prestige are far down on the list, a national survey discovered in 1995. In the survey, 89 percent said society places too much emphasis on physical attractiveness, and 83 percent of those blame the media and advertising for over emphasizing good looks. (Brooks, 1995, p. 33) The survey was conducted in 1995 and without the social media circulating around, 89 percent of the society was already emphasizing on appearance look. How much does the 20th century people would emphasize on appearance look?
Statistics show that celebrities hold plenty of sway over impressionable young children. A 2006 study by USA Weekend found that half of teens agree that peers are more likely to smoke or drink because they see celebrities do it. Over three-quarters of teens think that their peers are likely to diet after a star loses weight, and some 60 percent say peers want to copy a celebrity’s tattoos and piercings. It is so evident nowadays in Fiji that sometimes young people don’t tend to follow their parents teaching. Thinking at the back of their mind that their celebrity icon is always correct and whereas their parents are outdated or obsolete.
Celebrity endorsement aims to create knowledge and create interest in the minds of customers. To do so several marketing techniques are implemented. Celebrity Endorsement is one of the influencing tool by which advertisers try to leverage the image and identification of the celebrity to promote a brand or company. Celebrity endorsement makes the advertisement dynamic, fascinating, interesting, but attention is also taken by customers.So far the celebrity is taken as a role model and in return these celebrities impact their lives. Celebrity endorsement is being done since long time, in fact not too late when advertisement techniques were taken on new shapes because advertisers recognized soon that by using public figured personalities in advertisements
This study may help the future researchers to gain new knowledge that is related to the perception of the students to celebrity endorser. 1.2 Review of related literature 1.3 Research questions 1.4 Theoretical framework According to Source Credibility Theory, acceptance of the message depends on expertise and trustworthiness of the source. Expertise is defined as the perceived ability of the source to make valid assertions. Trustworthiness is defined as the perceived willingness of the source to make valid assertions. According to Source Attractiveness Theory, which is based on social psychological research, the acceptance of the message depends on familiarity, likeability and similarity.
“Researchers say many teenagers are emulating celebrity idols like Mischa Barton, Lindsay Lohan, Hilary Duff, and Chris Martin (the lead singer of Coldplay), some scarcely out of their teens themselves, to cultivate an impression of maturity” (La Ferla, 2006, para. 11). As such, this exploratory paper attempts to define and examine the positive and negative impacts of celebrity on audiences’ self esteem, the emotional evaluation and attitude towards themselves by focusing on Hollywood actors influence on university students. For the purpose of this study, self esteem define as a confidence and satisfaction in oneself : self-respect. Hollywood actors are most admirable and well-known, also easily reach consumers with their appearance on american movies.