Aim The purpose of this experiment was to use fractional distillation technique to separate cyclohexane and toluene. Background Information Distillation is a technique which is used for separating two or more volatile products based on differences in their boiling points. Distillation can be used to separate a volatile solvent from a non-volatile product and separate a volatile product from non-volatile impurities. Simple distillation consists of a round-bottom flask, a distilling head, a condenser, an adapter and a receiver which are used to separate compounds where one is considerably more volatile than the other compound. This distillation is performed in one step.
Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography (Investigative) Kevin Dural The University of Texas at Austin Fractional Distillation and Gas Chromatography (Investigative) Data and Results All data and results are attached. Included are carbon copies of written data and printed gas chromatography data. Discussion The purpose of this experiment was to identify two unknowns and their ratios in a given mixture. The identities of the unknowns were two of either acetone, methanol, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, toluene, or ethyl benzene. Distillation Distillation is used to remove impurities from a mixture – one component of which must be a liquid.
In our experiment, we were able to synthesize isopentyl acetate by heating a reaction mixture of isopentyl alcohol with excess acetic acid. We were then able to purify the isopentyl alcohol by using the methods of extraction, drying, and distillation. Our synthesis and purification of isopentyl acetate was fairly successful in allowing us to obtain and analyze banana oil. Questions 1. In addition to using excess acetic acid to form the ester, the reaction can also be influenced by removing water from the reaction mixture.
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions that take place on benzene, and how the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again.
Observations Step Observation Adding sulfuric acid into the alcohol and carboxylic acid solution Surface of the round bottom flask is warm Poring the ester solution in the bottle after reflux Dense gas can be seen Washing the ester with distilled water The ester layer is immiscible with distilled water. Washing the ester with sodium carbonate solution Effervescence -bubbles of gas produced -a ‘pop’ sound could be heard when the separating funnel is closed and opened again. The ester layer is immiscible with the sodium carbonate solution Adding anhydrous calcium chloride into the ester solution Heat would be produced as the surface of the conical flask feels warm. Anhydrous calcium chloride crystals would clump up after swirling.
Fractional distillation is a separation technique used to separate two liquids with different boiling points and keep the liquid. To do this, we set it up just like the distillation lab with the 10-15mL in the test tube over the fire and the tube leading the the test tube in the beaker. The first time you go through, the same test tube is left in the whole time but you must record the temperature around every 10-15 seconds using your labquest. You then find two places where the temperature is consistent for a few seconds, this is your plateau. The second time you go through, change out the test tubes as soon as you get to your first plateau, this liquid is liquid one.
Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to purify acetanilide that was contaminated with relatively small amounts of impurities using recrystallization. The success of recrystallization was dependent on a suitable solvent being chosen and proper recrystallization technique being carried out. The solvent chosen had to have a different polarity than that of the molecule of interest. The technique used was dependent on the solubility of the solvent at higher temperature and the solubility of the impurities at all temperatures. To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H NMR and IR were used.
In this experiment, two alcohols, 1-propanol and 2-propanol, were oxidized through combining each with an excess amount of chromic acid solution. The purpose for conducting this experiment was to determine the reaction rate constant at which aldehydes and ketones formed from the respective oxidation of 1-propanol and 2-propanol. From this value, the half-life of the alcohol during the reaction could be derived. The progress of the reaction was tracked through the color change of the solution through use of a spectrophotometer. The first 6 minutes of absorbance of each alcohol’s oxidation were graphed.
The chromatogram confirmed the identity of the lower boiling point solvent as acetone, and the higher boiling point solvent as toluene. The unknowns were correctly identified due to the clear presence of two plateaus in the experimental data. The hot plate was not turned on too high or too low to not obtain one of the three samples, and a sufficient number of values were taken in each part of the distillation before the mixture evaporated away to obtain approximately accurate data for boiling points. The ratio calculated for the volume of solvents in the mixture was .506/.488, where the composition of the mixture was 50.6% acetone, and 48.8% toluene. These two values did not add up to 100% because the GC also recorded some impurities,
Experiment # 9 Steam Distillation DUAZO, Ana Ilumin A. *, CRUZ, Stephen Zack B., DE LEON, Abigael L. and DE SOTTO, Frances Faye C. 3-Chemistry, Department of Chemistry College of Science, University of Santo Tomas Abstract The whole experiment talks about the separation of an aromatic compound, chlorobenzene which is temperature sensitive, from water through the process of steam distillation. The main purpose of this experiment is to determine the composition of the vapor of chlorobenzene and water; to measure the volume of each component in the condensate; and to calculate the molecular mass of the organic compound, chlorobenzene. The vapor pressure of the chlorobenzene and water were 525.8 mmHg and 234.2 mmHg respectively, while the calculated molecular mass for the organic compound, chlorobenzene was 113.70 g with a calculated percent error of 1.01 %. Introduction Steam distillation is a known technique that is commonly used for purifying and separating a mixture with two or more different compounds with different boiling points.