Fractional Distillation

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Separation of Liquids by Fractional Distillation and Analysis by Gas Chromatography

Methods and Background

This lab was exceptionally knowledgeable and important in order to understand how certain compounds can be separated based on their boiling points (Landrie, 43). This experiment in particular focuses on understanding the separation of 1:1 mixture of acetone and 1 propanol using the method of fractional distillation (Landrie, 43). In the previous experiment, we focused on understanding the same separation but in terms of simple distillation. If compared with the data shown below with the data in the previous experiment, overall, the fractional distillation showed better and more effective results (Landrie, 43).

This experiment also provided better
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This is because if taken simple distillation into consideration. The column has a lower temperature at the top then the bottom thus there is a lower vapor pressure (Gilbert 126). And therefore the bottom as a higher temperature and in order to reach an equilibrium the temperature gradient is formed as shown the graph above (Gilbert 126).The column is utilized so that the vapor reaches the condenser at the bottom of the column and therefore several simple distillation trials need to be done in order to ensure that the distillation can be very effective (Gilbert 126). Boiling point and vaporization are inversely proportional, so lower boiling point means faster vaporization so in this case acetone moves down the column faster leaving the 1-propanol for the last fraction (Gilbert 126). That being said, in the fractional distillation, the rings act as the trials in the simple distillation (Gilbert 126). The rings increase surface area therefore it is a lot easier for the less volatile compound (acetone) to flow down the column with a greater level of separation (Gilbert
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