Vygotsky assumes that learner will learn best when actively participating in a learning session with the teacher through doing constructed activities. Vygotsky builds a theory of Zone Proximal Development (ZPD) which is an undercover area of knowledge that a learner can build when teacher able to refine the way of learner perform. In social constructivism, the role of human linguistic abilities enable learner to outdone natural limitation. Vygotsky ZPD will enables the learner to reach a potential development by the guidance and participation or teacher as facilitator and peers. A learner capability of problem-solving and understanding situation will be upgraded above their actual development because constructivist believes the cognitive structures that still in the process of maturing will mature after compromising with the guidance or with the participation with others.
It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problem solving, decision making and creativity. Then the fifth proposition is “Learning results from synergetic transactions between the person and the environment”. In Piaget’s terms, learning occurs through equilibration of the dialectic processes of assimilating new experiences into existing concepts and accommodating existing concepts to new experience. Following Lewin’s famous formula that behavior is a function of the person and the environment, ELT holds that learning is influenced by characteristics of the learner and the learning space (Kolb and Kolb,
• The design of the learning experience includes the possibility to learn from natural consequences, mistakes and successes. The Experiential Learning Process: A number of steps are involved in experiential learning that offer student a hands-on, collaborative and reflective learning experience which helps them to “fully learn new skills and knowledge” (Haynes, 2007). Although learning content is important, but experiential learning emphasis on the learning taken place through the process which is at the heart of experiential learning. During each step of the experience, students will engage with the content, the instructor, each other as well as self–reflect and apply what they have learned in another situation. The following describes the steps that comprise experiential learning as noted by (Haynes, 2007, para.
In learner-centred learning, students "construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on" (Perumal, 2015). How do learners learn in learner-centred teaching? The term 'learner-centred' depicts that learners are the active agents who determine how learning occurs. They "influence the content, activities, materials, and pace of learning" (Froyd & Simpson, 2000) and thus take responsibility of their own learning. The teacher, who takes the role of facilitator and coach, plays the key role of creating the necessary environment for the students so that they can learn independently.
Many teaching strategies and learning activities address this notion. For example, Problem-based Learning Theory (an amalgamation of Cognitive and Social Constructivist theories, by Piaget (1920) and Vygotsky (1978), respectively), is a hands-on, active learning technique that lets students be independent thinkers and problem-solvers through investigation, where the teacher is a facilitator. Other models which guarantee student engagement include Discovery Learning by Bruner (1961), Experiential Learning by Kolb (1984) and 21st Century Skills. These models provide maximum opportunities for students to experience with materials and resources, collaborate, socialize, analyse and solve problems related to real life. Teachers can employ instruction which is clear, communicate their objectives vividly, design a plan using a variety of strategies and resources, ask questions frequently and effectively and have brain-storming sessions, attention grabbing starters, pre-while-post technology hands-on, debates, role plays, enquiries, case studies, research, multimedia presentations, group work, simulation by audios and videos, games, interactive plenaries, inventories, quizzes etc.
In this case, reinforcement is referring to having an increase in behavior and regarding to punishment its defined to decrease a behavior. The reinforcement and punishment can consist of being positive and or negative. In operant conditioning, the most effective method to utilize is positive reinforcement, which is beneficial for the change of one’s behavior. Positive Reinforcement Positive
Learning refers to any relatively permanent change or modification in behavior resulting from practice and or exposure conditioning. It could be motor, visual, or conceptual. Learning theories provide a theoretical outline that describes how information is absorbed, processed and retained during learning (Schunk, 2015). In this paper, I will discuss the learning theories of behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and humanism and some principles within these theories that apply to learning like classical and operant conditioning, scaffolding, schemas, situated cognition, Bloom’s taxonomy, as well metacognitive activities. With research findings, we can learn what it takes to use different parts of our brain for different learning theories.
Behavioural learning theorists place strong emphasis on the effect changes in the environment has on behaviour, they believe that all students can arrive at the same learning when the environment is perfectly presented (Ertmer & Newby, 2013).. Behaviourists believe that the environment is one of the most important factors claiming it has a significant impact on the individual’s behaviour. Cognitive and Behaviourists are similar in the way they both design learning goals with a clear objective in mind. However behaviourists believe in a teacher centred classroom and cognitive believes in the impact the environment can have on learning opting for a more student focused style of teaching (Yilmaz, 2011). The sociocultural learning theory is unique in this perspective as it opposes teacher instruction that interjects and leads learning towards a predetermined outcome. Instead sociocultural believe learning occurs when the learner is actively and socially involved in their environment and therefore the environment needs to be student centred and foster learning with the goal of deep meaning making (Richardson, 2003).
Students become self-reflected learners; they take responsibility for their own learning. The key to assessment as learning enables students to develop the capacity to monitor their own work in progress which the teachers support through encouragement and monitoring. ( Dear Hammond, L. (2012) Based on curriculum expectations and the achievement charts, the students are taught to use rubrics, samples and models as a good practice. In addition, formative assessment is a procedure utilized by instructors and students amid guideline that gives unequivocal input to alter progressing educating and figuring out how to enhance students ' accomplishment of planned instructional outcomes. Formative evaluation is a technique for persistently assessing students ' scholastic needs and advancement inside the classroom and goes before nearby benchmark appraisals and state-commanded summative assessments.
There are different strategies that can be used by the teachers for effective class management among which the most significant is clearly setting out the format of lessons. This is done with the help of setting objectives and aims, giving regular positive feedback, reviewing the learning outcomes and giving an in depth summary and final exercise to the students. While on the other hand, the teacher can also make use of rubrics for understanding the abilities of students. The teachers can also make use of self-reflection as the strategy for class management because it helps the students in analysing their own learning and development abilities. With the help of this strategy, the teacher would be able to determine the pros and cons of each