The depot preparation could ensure continuous drug delivery with a stable plasma drug concentration over long periods. Taking into account the high propensity of noncompliance to the oral medications, long-acting depot would likely be beneficial to Madam M. Therefore, the doctor initiated intramuscular fluphenazine decanoate 25mg monthly for her. As for oral antipsychotics, the doctor aimed to taper off tablet aripiprazole in the future. This was because a monotherapy (IM depot) was likely sufficient for Madam
The timing of the introduction of methadone to a patient usually occurs when the patient has no signs of intoxication and first begins to show symptoms of withdrawal. The patient’s daily dosage is increased each day until the patient has a steady dose An optimal methadone dosage should produce prevention of withdrawals for 24 hours, no presents of cravings, the lack of euphoric effects of self-administered opioids and the ability to function normally without impairment of physical or emotional response. Most patients find the optimal dosage of methadone is between 80 to 120mg per day. There are patients who can have an optimal dosage lower than 80mg or higher than 120mg per day the dosage varies depending on the patient. A methadone maintenance patient must report to the dispensary each day between particular times to receive their medication
Jim Lynn references a TV ad for Prozac in which the announcer, in a soft voice, gives the feeling of peace and serenity. Prozac is the panacea for all that ails humanity. Never mind the long list of side effects given at the end of the ad. “Are they the answer to man’s quest for happiness and healing, or is there something sinister at work here?” (p. 90)
Opioids have been a troubling problem in the United States for many years. In the recent past, since the yearly 2000’s, opioid overdoses have been on a steady incline. With heroin becoming the drug of choice in many cities across the country, overdoses relating to heroin are on the rise. Many states and cities are attempting to reverse the epidemic. Making naloxone, an overdose reversal drug, readily available for emergency responders or even those individuals overdosing, could cause a decrease in overdose related fatalities.
Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, even when symptoms have subsided. Treatment with medications and psychosocial therapy can help manage the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be needed. A psychiatrist experienced in treating schizophrenia usually guides treatment.
Is the policy of giving methadone to drug addicts a good one? There are many conflicting opinions about this topic. Methadone Maintenance Treatment is a very controversial topic that arises many different attitudes toward the program. Some people believe that Methadone maintenance treatment is a good thing and that it does truly help addicts get over their addictions. Others are against Methadone Maintenance treatment because they believe it is an unnecessary and a waste of money.
Cape May County has a serious problem with heroin. Different law enforcement strategies and educational programs can help stop this problem. Heroin is an opioid drug that is synthesized from morphine, which is a naturally occurring substance extracted from the seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder or as a black sticky matter known as “black tar heroin”. Heroin can be smoked, inhaled or injected, all deliver the drug extremely rapidly.
The bioavailability of codeine is approximately 53% and it has a biological half-life of approximately 3 hours. Codeine is mainly converted to morphine in the liver by an isoenzyme of CYP450, CYP2D6 (uptodate). CYP3A4 and UGT2B7 also contribute to its metabolism, converting codeine to norcodeine and codeine-6-glucuronide respectively. Furthermore, morphine is further metabolised by glucorinidation to active morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. Codeine is eliminated through bile and excreted out of the body through urine and faeces with 10% of the total dose as unchanged drug (rang and dale).
Fatigue symptoms are a consequence of cancer or cancer therapy 4. The symptoms are not primarily a consequence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV This interview provides information and diagnosis whether the patient has any of the DSM –IV diseases. The same person conducted the interviews, done by a OM who was trained in administration and supervised by consultant liaison psychiatrist.
When interpreting concentration measurements, factors that need to be considered include the sampling time in relation to drug dose, dosage history, patient response, and the desired medicinal targets. The goal of therapeutic drug monitoring is to use suitable concentrations of difficult-to-manage medications to optimize clinical outcomes in patients in various clinical situations. Keywords: Drug monitoring, therapeutic; Pharmacokinetics Introduction Therapeutic drug monitoring is generally defined as the measurement of specific drugs at timed intervals in order to maintain a relatively constant concentration of the medication in the bloodstream. Monitored drugs tend to have a narrow therapeutic index, that is a ratio between the toxic and therapeutic doses of medications.
Introduction: Quetiapine Fumarate (QF) is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia and manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. QF possesses good solubility in aqueous fluids (1) and ethanol. Quetiapine is available in the market with the brand name of Seroquel XL (2). Inadvertent, rapid drug release in a small period of time of the entire amount or a significant fraction of the drug contained in a prolonged release dosage form is often referred to as “dose dumping”. Jhonson F. et al.
Aspirin is considered a “polydrug” due to its variety of uses stretching from pain-relief to disease prevention. Salicylic acid is derived from the bark and leaves of the willow tree. Salicylic acid belongs to a group of phytochemicals which have been shown to have positive effects on human health. Salicylic acid is a phenolic compound that can be found in a variety of plants and is a crystal organic carboxylic acid. However, it is more commonly viewed as the primary metabolite and active compound of acetyl salicylic acid, which has been used as an anti-inflammatory drug by physicians for over 100 years.
Literature review Symptom types of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is generally divided according to symptom types. The symptoms of schizophrenia have been divided into three specific complexes (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive deficits; Buchanan, 2007), while others use a dichotomous model, such as type I and type II Schizophrenia (Crow, 1980) that roughly corresponds to positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia (Andreasen, 1982). Positive symptoms were characterized over the past 150 years by active excesses in normal functioning; while negative symptoms of schizophrenia are characterized by a loss of normal functioning (Berrios, 1985; Rector, Beck & Stolar, 2005). Hence, while there are different symptom types, all typologies and dimensional models acknowledge negative symptoms. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are thought to be a marker of dysfunction and cognitive impairments (Rabinowtiz et al., 2012).