The Crusades were the wars and military expeditions of the Christians and Muslims. The Christians were fighting to regain Jerusalem, “the Holy Land” which was under the control of the Muslims . Most of the land around the Holy land had also been captured by the Muslims . The Crusades started when Pope Urban II pleaded to the people to go to war to regain what belonged to the Christians. This was just the start of the deaths and wars for the many years to come.
Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont in 1095 was a call to crusade given outdoors to the nobles, commoners and church leaders of the Western European Christians (the Franks). The people were moved by this speech and it changed history, launching the first crusade to capture Jerusalem from the Muslim Turks. After hearing Pope Urban II’s speech, thousands of Western European Christians were moved to embark on the dangerous journey and fight in the crusade. I believe the main reasons they were moved and persuaded to fight was; 1) they felt it was their Christian duty, 2) Pope Urban promised them absolution for their sins and 3) they felt compelled to defend Christianity, their holy land and the Eastern Christians.
What were the Crusades? According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, 1 the Crusades were a series of holy wars called by popes with the promise of indulgences for those who fought in them and directed against external and internal enemies of Christendom for the recovery of Christian property or in defense of the Church or Christian people. This essay is going to outline the main events, and explain the reasons for, the first three crusades, by giving the timeline of main events that took place and telling as to why the Crusades happened. The First Crusade was initiated in November 1095 by Pope Urban II in the town of Clermont in France.
Over time, there have been many different ways people see King John. A variety of opinions regarding this matter have been expressed. Some are very difficult to believe as they are secondary sources. John was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death in 1216. He was the youngest of five sons from King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Innocent III also arranged that the Roman church promote a crusade against what he saw as heretics in southern France. Much bloodshed and lasting enmity were the only lasting effects of this effort. Innocent III promoted the Fourth Crusade to recover Jerusalem fro the western nation coalition. The fourth crusade was a debacle since in 1204 a group of Crusaders sacked and took control of Constantinople, ostensibly the ally of Rome.
The crusades have provided some of the most frequent arguments against the Christian faith. Some Islamic terrorists even claim that their terrorist attacks are revenge for what Christians did in the crusades. First of all, the crusades should not be referred to as the “Christian crusades.” Most of the people involved in the crusades were not truly Christians, even though they claimed to be. The name of Christ was abused, misused, and blasphemed by the actions of many of the crusaders.
The Medieval worldview was quite different than other societies near that era; in the regard of a complete rejection and almost persecution of the humanism principle. Two men played key roles in the development and history of that time; they went by the names Augustine and Pope innocent III. The two of them shared a few common ideas and/or themes of human nature that truly reflects the Medieval worldview of how humans are inherently bad, unjust and must seek atonement for sinful behavior. Augustine’s interpretations are equal to Pope Innocents’ but less vicious in delivery by implicating the need for holy grounds and churches for the filth and sinful nature of men.
In the Roman Empire, Christianity was not freely practiced until Constantine became emperor and converted to Christianity. Romans were polytheists, and Diocletian, who was emperor of the Roman Empire before Constantine, increased the persecution of Christians. In his Life of Constantine, Eusebius recorded Constantine’s conversion to Christianity after he heard God’s command, “Use in his Wars a Standard made in the Form of the Cross” (Eusebius Ch. XXVIII) before battle with Maxentius, and after he won that battle Constantine converted to Christianity. In Life of Constantine, Eusebius only portrays Constantine as a good Christian emperor.
The Magna Carta was the “Great Charter” of rights, which King John was forced to sign by the English nobles in Runnymede, Surrey in 1215. Feudal custom had been recognized that the relationship between king and vassals was based on mutual rights and obligations. The Magna Carta gave written recognition to that fact and was used in later years to strengthen the idea that a monarch’s power was limited, not absolute. In the Magna Carta’s 63 clauses, King John vowed that the church would remain free, listed rights due to landholders, said he would dismiss his mercenaries from foreign countries, and gave a council of 25 barons the right to go to war with him if he did not honor the Magna Carta.
During the fifteenth century the Catholic Church was in control of everything and believed that law was the way to keep order. Then, a reformer named Martin Luther came amidst. Although Martin Luther disagreed with the practice of indulgences, distrust in different powers through religions, and salvation through good works, he took action and wrote his 95 theses, affecting people politically, socially, and economically, all of which led to a reformation of the Catholic Church and new faith. In 1517, many citizens of Germany had many political views about Luther.