In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students' preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them. Dialogic teaching Dialogic teaching harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend students’ thinking, and advance their learning and understanding (Alexander 2010). The term ‘dialogic teaching’ is now in regular use but like all such terms means different things to different people. As developed by Robin Alexander since the early 2000s, dialogic teaching harnesses the power of talk to stimulate and extend students’ thinking and advance their learning and understanding.
1.5 Kohn’s Student Directed Learning Theory Kohn’s student-directed learning theory is an approach to the classroom management which may be particularly effective in the modern classroom environment. Student-directed learning will keep students motivated and teaches them to cooperate with each other sharing responsibilities and functions within their community. Kohn believes that the ideal classroom emphasizes on curiosity and cooperation above all, and that the student’s curiosity should determine what is taught. "Skillful educators tap students ' natural curiosity and desire to become competent. In a learning environment, teachers want to help students engage with what they are doing to promote deeper understanding" (Kohn, 1997c).
Given this understanding such activities should be made components of the school curriculum to facilitate creative thinking among students. Essay writing, quizzes, elocution competitions and debates should also be actively promoted in schools. In preparing for elocution competitions and debates, students are compelled to do their own research on the topics they have to present – invariably, this will enhance their quest for information (knowledge), and contribute to improving their reasoning and critical thinking skills. As for tertiary education, its curriculum should incorporate more assignments and projects involving some extent of research work to inculcate the “critical spirit”. By doing assignments and research work, students will be provided the opportunity to read extensively, do literature reviews and perform internet search to gather information in order to complete their papers for submission.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
Because of this, they are encouraged to put an action plan in place for struggling students that provide alternative ways to learn concepts, in order to help that student achieve educational success. I think the main goal for both of these concepts is to encourage students to be interested in gaining knowledge in subject matter, and providing both an engaging environment for the student to learn in, as well as helping them to enjoy what they are learning as
2. The Advantages of Treffinger Learning Model The advantages of applying Treffinger learning model according to Huda (2013: p. 320) are as follows: a. Make the students more active in learning and have confidence to speak their ideas. b. Develop students' thinking skills because it presented a problem in the early learning and provide flexibility to students to find their own solutions.
Meanwhile, constructivism helped the researcher in conceptualizing this study. It serves as a theoretical organizer for many science educators who are trying to understand cognition in science (Lunetta, 1998) learners construct their ideas and understanding on the basis of series of personal experiences. Under this theory, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Teachers also promote open-ended questions and extensive dialogue among students. Kurt Lewin theorized a three-stage model of change that is known as the unfreezing-change-refreeze model that requires prior learning to be rejected and replaced.
Do we want this to be the norm for curriculum in the classroom? Many people have different opinions on whether or not standardized testing should be continued. There have been many disagreements on if standardized tests accurately measure student accomplishments or if they have helped students in the long-run. Numerous teachers do not like “teaching to the test”. Even students are tired of being deprived creativeness in the classroom and they are only learning certain objectives that
Select one is the listener, while other is the problem solver. The listener should check to see all the steps are followed, while the problem solver works the problem out louder. The teachers should try to teach the students broad concepts, rather than just facts and use the materials and relevant ideas to the students. Teacher are the gateways for the students to enter and achieve the successful life. Conclusion While to conclude the assignment I want to say that the framework of a theory allows us to organize a large display of facts so that we can understand them.
In other words, they often used the type of assessment that mainly focuses on the ability of the students to arrive or produce or demonstrate their own learning. They rarely used the assessment tools that focus on the product their students were able to come up with. There are many reasons why teachers are reluctant to use formative assessment in their classroom. Time shortage and large class size are one of the main reasons that teachers mentioned in their interview. Moreover, teachers decided their assessment types basing on its convenience for management.