Interactive Reading Process

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describe reading as an interactive cognitive process in which readers interact with the text by using their prior knowledge and cultural background (Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, 1987).
Eskey (1986) defines reading as a way of “making sense of the world” (p.6) as readers combine the new information they read in the text with their background knowledge. Another definition of reading is offered by Anderson, Hiebert, Scott and Wilkinson (1985). They define reading as a process of constructing meaning from written texts by coordinating a number of interrelated sources of information. Accordingly, as the reader reads through the text, he generates inferences when he activates information that is not explicitly stated in the text in order
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2.2. Models of Reading (4the relation)p9 There are three major theoretical perspectives of reading that are usually discussed in the literature of second language reading (L2). The bottom-up model focuses on linguistic elements and decoding the information presented in the text. The top-down model emphasizes the overall comprehension of the text. The interactive model and schema theory aim to complete the gap between these two models, integrate them and provide a better explanation for the reading process.
2.2.1. Bottom-up Processing The bottom-up model, also named “data-driven” model, focuses on cognitive information processing and decoding skills. A reader is assumed to construct meaning from the smallest textual units at the bottom (i.e., letters and words) to larger units at the top (i.e., clauses and sentences) (Carrell, 1984). Barnett
(1989) regards reading as a process “in which small chunks of texts are absorbed, analyzed, and gradually added to the next chunk until they become meaningful” (p.13).
Similar to Barnett, Eskey (1986) also states that in this model, as the reader reads “by moving his eyes from left to right across the
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Carrell and Eisterhold (1983) states that bottom-up processing ensures that the language learners will be sensitive to information that is novel or that does not fit their ongoing hypothesis about the content or structure of the text.
Eskey (1988) points that decoding skills used in this model are rapid, accurate, and important to any kind of reading , and are particularly indispensable to L2 reading. Knowing the letter sound code permits the reader to decode, recognize, or approximate the pronunciation of words not recognized at sight. 2.2.2. Top-down Processing Top-down model, also named “hypothesis-driven” model, conceptualizes the reading process as one in which stages are which are higher up and at the end of the information- processing sequence interact with stages which occur earlier in the sequence (Samuels & Kamil,

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