Connectivism Theory

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The theoretical-conceptual framework of this study is drawn from the perspectives of Interactive Reading Model of Rumelhart and Goodman, Differentiated Instruction Model of Carol Tomlinson, and Connectivism Theory of Siemens and Downes.
The Interactive Reading Model of Rumelhart stresses that one`s knowledge of letter-sound relationships, words, sentences, paragraphs, and text selections are important as they contribute to reading comprehension and meaningful reading (as cited in Vacca et al.,7th ed.). The various sources of knowledge such as feature extraction, orthographic knowledge, syntactic knowledge, lexical knowledge, and semantic knowledge influence the process of reading and the reader`s interpretation. In Rumelhart`s reading model,
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In connectivism, learning takes place the moment a learner connects to and feeds data into a learning community (Kop and Hill, 2008). According to Siemens (2004, as cited in Kop and Hill, 2008), a community is the grouping together of related areas of interest that lets learners interact, share, dialogue, and think collectively. He also states that when a learner is involved to create and recreate their own “learning network”, learning takes place by employing “meta-cognition” in making judgment whether elements are still relevant or not in the network. Networks for Downes and Siemens refer to the connection between “internal” and “external” “physical environments”. For them, “learning is the network”. The connectivism theory emphasizes that learning experience is mainly focused on the learner, not the teacher nor the curriculum. Learners in this theory serve as instruments in designing the learning content and determining the communication levels, and persons who can take part (Kop and Hill, 2008). Furthermore, Siemens (2006, as cited in Goldie, 2016) clearly states that learning does not only exist inside but also outside each learner , thus, it may be inherent in non-human devices. These devices such as computers and software serve as facilitators of making connections between people, ideas, and information. Furthermore, he notes that technology has a significant role in making connections and developing and enhancing cognitive skills. The connectivism theory of Siemens and Downes, which is referred to as the theory for the digital age, gives emphasis on technology as influential in the way people communicate, and learn (Kop and Hill) since knowledge is shared through a network of data or information and can be entered into different digital platforms (Kop and Hill, 2008). However, this theory does not concentrate on “online environment” only.
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