Theories (Erikson & Attachment) According to Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, trust vs. mistrust, occurs in the first year of life. Erikson believed that the caregiver’s response to the infant’s cries help them develop a sense of trust, when the caregiver responds right away to the infant’s distress of crying or fussing (Mooney, 2000). Erikson believed that in the earliest years of life, mainly during infancy, patterns of trust or mistrust are formed that control, or at least influence, a person’s actions or interactions for the rest of life (Erikson, 1950). Bowlby hypothesized that children are born with a predisposition to be attached to caregivers and that children will organize their behavior and thinking in order to maintain those relationships (Bettmann, 2006).
Bretherton stated in his article “the origins of attachment theory” “To grow up mentally healthy the infant and young child should experience a warm intimate and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother
Many of the placements are done to carry out the systems policies and other placements are done if foster parents don’t meet the child needs. Children are less likely to be moved many times if a foster family is prepared to meet the child 's challenging needs. The foster care system is also in need of more social workers that will ensure that the child is placed in a good family so that they are not moved several times. Plenty of placements are also done if the child is initially placed in short-term care but needs to be moved to long term. However, the more changes a child experiences decreases the chance of them returning home or being adopted.
With research, it has become apparent that there is a correspondence between mothers and children on the basis that attachment. Attachment depends on the reaction from mothers to her child’s emotional cues. (Feldman, 2012, Chapter
Generically Ainsworth classification of attachment styles described infant-caregiver relationships as either secure or insecure; insecure attachment can be further subdivided into either an avoidant/resistant patterns depending on the particular pattern of behaviour displayed by the infant. For individual attachment patterns there is a corresponding caregiving style. The secure type is when an infant seeks protection or comfort from their mother and receives care consistently. The mother is usually found to be loving and affectionate, educating a child to cope with problems in the future. In contrast, punitive rejection and being unavailable is associated with insecure anxious-avoidant attachment.
The attachment theory specifies that an infants and young child requires consistent relationships with people to thrive and develop. Attachment is described as a essential need with a biological basis where infants or young children need to maintain a sense of security with a specific person. Developing a secure attachment between the infant and their parents or guardian is an important part of early childhood development, due to the many things that can interfere with the development of a healthy attachment. Without a secure attachment, an infant may develop problems that can continue throughout their lives and affect the relationships with others. Approach behavior may be defined as locomotion in which a usual outcome of the distance between one person and one other specific person is observed to distinguish the distance between each individual and the attachment to one another.
The development and importance of attachment in early life Most people believe there is nothing more precious and fulfilling in life than having a family of their own. But what happens if the new parents are unable to form a healthy, loving attachment with their newborns? This essay will explore the development and importance of attachment, its theory, and the significance of a parent nurturing a loving attachment with their baby. Formation of attachment Although the British psychiatrist John Bowlby was not the first to study the psychological effects of having a kind and present caregiver in babies early developmental stages, he was revolutionary in his attachment theory (Goldberg, 2000).
Then follows the safety needs which are mostly acquired by infants and adults these needs can over- power their personality Kendra (1971). The need for belongingness and love will then be the next one on the hierarchy as it is classified into friends and family. The esteem needs follows the belongingness needs this is based on gaining recognition. The last one will be the self-actualization need which completes the development of the self on the realism manner especially on personal morals Kendra (1971).
In addition, Mary Ainsworth created the idea of the theory maternal sensitivity to an infant’s indications and it’s role in the development of infant to mother attachment displays. John Bowlby believed that mental health and behavioural problems could be attached to early childhood and that children were already biologically programmed to be able to form an attachment with people, when they are born into this world.
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
My child shows a preference for me and then my partner is a close second. During the 3-moth and 8-moth period is when an infant starts to develop a secure attachment to the people they spend the most time with and true attachment happens. Something that can happen that affects attachment security is if an infant is taken care of by a caregiver/babysitter the infant forms an attachment to them and they might no longer prefer you first and will only prefer you if and only if their caregiver/babysitter isn 't there or won 't respond to them.