Lindder-Pelz Theory Value Expectancy Theory

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Value expectancy model The expectancy is considered as a general concept in psychology, however, conversely in the health literature it is assumed as it is in the real world. In psychology, expectancy theory posits that satisfaction is expressed by a difference between what one received and expected or wanted to receive. However, expectations are made of “cognitive processes” and shaped by “previous experiences”, so it is dynamic, complex beliefs (Bowling et al., 2012). Linder-Pelz theory, value-expectancy model, is based on social-psychological theory as they proposed five social-psychological variables, “occurrences”, “value”, ”expectations”, ”interpersonal comparisons”, and ”entitlement” as determinants of patient satisfaction to explain …show more content…

Maslow proposed five-level classification of human needs as physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation. He suggested that physiological needs are the basic needs and these needs should be satisfied first and then subsequent needs emerge. Self-actualisation is the highest order of needs and to fulfill this need a person should be biologically efficient, usually in better health, both mentally and physically. The degree of satisfaction is resulted by fulfillment of these hierarchy of needs. However, these needs can vary individual to individual regarding their personal characteristics, pathology, and health care settings. Thus, health professionals need to understand patient needs and react in accordance (Hills & Kitchen, 2007; Hills & Kitchen, 2007b). Johnson (1996) attempted to compare Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the normative model (Theory of caregiver motivation or hierarchy of patient outcomes encompasses classification systems for healthcare outcomes proposed by Brook et al., (1977), Donabedian (1982) and Lohr (1988)) to understand what optimizes patient satisfaction and quality of health care. According to the normative model, patient outcomes from health service are classified into four outcome groups, disease eradication, patient performance, general health and patient satisfaction in ascending order of hierarchy. Johnson proposed as the most basic need physiological needs of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs is parallel to disease eradication outcome in health service; safety needs of Maslow’s hierarchy to patient performance outcome, esteem and love needs of Maslow’s hierarchy to general health outcome and self-actualization needs of Maslow’s hierarchy to patient satisfaction outcome, respectively. As this synthesis of two theories, Johnson proposed that as Maslow’s human needs hierarchy – once

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