Capitalism makes the working class into a class of exploited workers. Marx believed that the economics behind capitalism is the reason for inequalities in society. Marx discussed in the Communist manifesto 184? the only way the exploitation would end was if the proletariat united to over throw the power group, in this case bourgeoisie to become a class for itself. This would lead to socialism or a communist society however this prediction has not developed
‘Focusing on capitalism and wage workers’ “estranged labour,” Marx broke with Hegels “ abstract” emphasis on consciousness and equation of objectification with alienation(Ritzer 2000:96) In the profound theory of alienation Marx continued to answer questions of the development of capitalism. He found that workers in a capitalist society do not possess the raw materials machines or factories in which they work with, but are owned by the capitalists in which the labours have to sell their ability to work in return of a wage. This arrangement of work shows four relations that lie at the centre of Marx 's theory of alienation 1, the worker is cut off or alienated from their productivity and not having any say in deciding what to do or actions to approach the productive activity that is given by the capitalist whom sets the conditions and speed that the labourer should be completing and having complete control the decision if the worker can work or not. Marx saw this as the ‘unequal relation between persons.’ (Ritzer 2000:101) 2, workers are alienated from the product meaning they have no control to how the product is being handled once it has left their station the labour is not free or enjoyable. ‘Marx saw all social life as bearing the imprints of material conditions’ (Ritzer 2002:107) 3, workers are alienated from others and their natural environment.
Gurley (1984), Karl Marx 7 major contributions to political economy such as he established a framework, investigated the production and circulation processes of industrial capitalism, studied the processes of capital accumulation, one can find an economic theory of the state in Marx's writings, explained how workers are mystified by the system of capitalism, alienated within its production sphere, and misled by false solutions to their problems, investigated the future course of global capitalist and socialist development, and he examined the impact of capitalist expansion on less-developed countries an sketched outlines of the future socialist and communist societies. For the main element of Marx social theory such as all societies are stratified into distinct groups and classes, society is a product of class struggle and social change is more revolutionary than evolutionary, society is a totality, a structure of interrelated levels, social processes are never homogenous and uniform, but contradictory and dialectical, society and history are characterized by certain laws, but it is man who ultimately makes the world through his actions and praxis and class society is held together as much by ideology and as much by
By ignoring the lower class or the powerless, those that influence important political decisions ignore those who make up a great majority of the population. The article mentions the use of the Brechtian or Schweikian forms of resistance as “Integral parts of the small arsenal of relatively powerless groups.” (Scott, Resistance 34). This form of resistance includes acts including false compliance, foot-dragging, smuggling, poaching and so on. Techniques such as these, are the ordinary means of class struggle. The term class struggle refers to the ideology of Karl Marx, which stated that there would be conflicts of interest between the working class and the ruling class in a capitalist society.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of most property in common which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole. Key Proponents Karl Marx, Fredrik Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky. Robert Owen, Pierre Leroux, Karl Marx, Fredrick Engels, John Stuart Mill, Albert Einstein, George Bernard Shaw, Thorstein Veblen, Emma Goldman. Concept of State According to Marxian point of view, communism regards state as a negative institution that has been instrumental in the exploitation of the oppressed classes at the hands of the wealthy classes. Thus, communism wants to abolish state structure after attaining the goal of classless society.
I’d like to show how Marxism and modernization are not as against each other as it is claimed, they in fact share many similarities. Marxism is a radical political philosophy that views world from economic and sociologist lenses. Marxism acknowledges that society comprises various classes of people and that capitalistic mode of economy further deepens this class structure by creating a gap between those haves and have-nots. In other words, Marxism believes that capitalism forms two major economic classes in the society; one is bourgeoisie that holds major forms of productions and processes most of the resources of the society while the other is proletariat that sells labour to bourgeoisie and virtually suffers from hand to mouth problem all the time. To make matter worse, modernization theory, which Marxism believes is an essential element of capitalism, further worsens the imbalances between the economic classes.
The latter consists of the base structures needed for the said societies production and operation; structures such as transport, energy and healthcare are part of the infrastructure. Institutions such as the justice system, military and family, among others, make up the superstructure. Marx viewed the 'state' as being in a relationship with society as one of control and subservience, respectively, therefore creating conflict. In Marx's theory of the state, he postulates the terms of mode/means of production, where the labour force are oppressed by the elite and owners of the production. He conferred that there were different stratifications, which formed economic bases, creating an ideological superstructure which consisted of juridical and
He believed that the proletariat will become aware of its misery and will unite to overthrow the capitalists and capitalism. Out of this revolution, an egalitarian communist society will develop. For Marx, the egalitarian ideal rest upon the principle “from each according to his ability; to each according to his needs” (Marx & Engels,1972:388, orig. 1848). In an egalitarian communist society, the state is the owner of the means of productions and divide the resources fairly between all citizens.
With respect to this, social class is perceived in the sociology as the combination of economic and political characteristics that identify the belonging of a person to a definite group. The most common approach to the differentiation of classes is the stratification “according to their relations to production and acquisition of goods” (Textbook, p. 193). This idea was suggested by Karl Marx and offered the basis for his division of the society into the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. However, Max Weber pointed out the weakness of Marx's theory referring to its foundation on economic indicators only and offering a wider perspective including the introduction of status groups that are stratified “according to principles of their consumption of goods as represented by special 'styles of life'” (Textbook, p. 193). This idea adds to a more profound understanding of the complexity of class division and envisions also the inclusion of the political dimension in the processes of class
As demonstrated by Marx and Engels in the introduction and development of instruments of labour, the division of labour and private property divide of people into social classes (i.e. the exploiting class and the exploited class). Alienation and contradiction – expressed through class struggles – are oppressive and dehumanizing, yet absolutely necessary for the general progress of the human society (Marx and Engels, 1965). Marx explains social change in endogenous terms, stressing the internal dynamics of the mode of production (Moratiu and Ignat 2011). From the social point of view, processes are qualified as being endogenous when they occur within the social system, conflicts arising due to tensions between socially unequal groups and classes, inequality being powered by economically contradictions, which, ultimately, grow into social contradictions calling for change.