These said qualities include “poor thermal stability, non-compatibility with hydrophobic polymers, and absorption of moisture”. In order to have a better product that can maximize its applications, cellulose is combined with other materials that have low crystallinity such as PLA, PVA, *other low crystallinity*. Aside from producing nanofibers, cellulose can also be turned to “hydrogels, nanoparticles, aerogels, films, nanocrystals, and nanowhiskers”. (Mridula Prakash Menon a, et. al.,
The drug-excipient compatibilities study showed no interaction of the drug with excipients. 10. The selected formula (F18), which contains 5% (w/w) crospovidone, which was prepared by direct compression method showed the shortest in vitro and in vivo disintegration time compared to other formulas. 11. In-vitro dissolution test of the optimized liquisolid orodispersible formula (F18) was significantly higher than DCT and marketed tablet .
The diverse mode of vibrations were identified and consigned to conclude the functional groups in the sample. Morphology study of the nanoparticles The morphological characteristics (size and shape) of the nanoparticles were examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) machine (Phillips C M 12). The sample was placed on a sample holder followed by coating with a conductive metal such as copper, using a sputter coater. The sample is then scanned with a focused fine beam of electrons (Jores et al., 2004). Membrane filtration technique The membrane filtration techniques provide a direct count of total coliforms and faecal coliforms in the water sample.
Ninan Ma et al., (2013) developed a type of multi-unit floating alginate (Alg) microspheres by the ionotropic gelation method with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) being used as gas-forming agent. Parmar et al., (2011) prepared floating microspheres of acyclovir to prolong residence time in stomach and to sustain the release of acyclovir. Masareddy et al., (2011) developed the floating alginate based microsphere system of Metformin HCL. Sharma et al., (2011) developed a multiparticulate floating pulsatile drug delivery system using porous calcium silicate and sodium alginate, for time- and site-specific drug release of meloxicam. Reddy et al., (2011) developed the floating microspheres of Cyclobenzaprine HCl by emulsion solvent diffusion technique using Ethyl cellulose polymer to achieve an extended retention in upper GIT and there by improved bioavailability.
The product dissolved in the dry ether after washing with toluene. Using filtration sodium acetate was separated, and the filtrate was evaporated to obtain syrup and fractionated at a boiling point of 133-136 °C. The obtained product dissolved in hydrogen bromide of glacial acetic acid and this mixture reaction kept in an ice bath for 1hr. According to procedure, the product was methylated to obtain 1bromo-2, 3, 4, 6-tetramethylglucose.
The solution was filtered, diluted suitably and drug content was analyzed at 220nm using UV spectrophotometer and observations were recorded (table 1). Dissolution rate studies The dissolution studies were carried out using dissolution apparatus (Rotating Paddle type) at a speed of 50 rpm. Accurately weighed amount of drug, PMs and SDs immersed in a pH 2.0 HCl buffer as dissolution medium at 37±0.5oC. The dissolution was carried out for 1 h and aliquot of 5ml was withdrawn at adequate intervals. The filtered samples were suitably diluted, assayed at 220nm and cumulative percentage of the drug dissolved from the formulations was calculated (table 2,
Cells were disrupted using RLT buffer and the lysate was homogenized by centrifugation through a QIAshradder spin column for 2 min at full speed. The flowthrough was mixed with 70% ethanol (equal volume as the RLT buffer used), transferred into an RNeasy spin column and centrifuged at 17000 g for 1 min. after having the flowthrough discard, RW1 buffer was added to the column, centrifuged at 17000 g for 1 min and the flowthrough was discard. The spin column was washed twice with RPE buffer under at 17000 g centrifugation for 2 min. The column was centrifuged empty at full speed for 1 min to remove any residual ethanol.
Figure 15: FTIR spectra of pantoprazole sodium+kollicoat MAE 30DP Drug-excipient compatability studies: FTIR In the FTIR spectra of pure drug and different polymers it is observed that the peaks of major functional groups which are present in spectrum of pure drug are observed in combination of drug and polymers. There was no appearance or disappearance of any characteristics peak in the FTIR spectrum of Optimized formulation. This shows that there is no chemical interaction between the drug and the polymers used .The presence of peaks at the expected range confirms that the materials taken for the study are genuine and there were no possible interactions occurred. 7.1.2 PREFORMULATION CHARACTERISTICS Table 23: Preformulation of powder blend of pantoprazole sodium core tablet Formulation code Angle of repose Bulk density (gm/cm2) Tapped density (gm/cm2) Hausners ratio %compressibility C1 25.7±0.03 0.34±0.02 0.42±0.03 1.24 19.04±0.01 C2 26.8±0.01 0.36±0.02 0.45±0.05 1.26
Pseudomonas mendocina EGD AQ5 degraded benzoate as a sole carbon source unto 40mM as revealed by spectrophotometry and HPLC analysis (Figure 2). Under static mode of incubation, Pseudomonas mendocina showed pellicle growth under high concentration (40mM) of benzoate after 3 days of incubation, while the release of planktonic cells started after 3rd day and highest at 12thday (Figure 2II) indicating adaptation of biofilm bacteria with benzoate (40mM) stress through pellicle formation and metabolite accumulation. HPLC analysis showed catechol accumulation in the culture supernatant. It was observed that untill 72hrs catechol accumulation has been insignificant. After 72hrs, catechol intermediate has been detected.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of silicated chitosan in promoting tablet disintegration and drug dissolution in comparison with commonly used superdisintegrant crospovidone. Silicated chitosan was prepared by co-precipitation method and metoclopramide hydrochloride was used as a model drug for the preparation of fast dissolving tablets. Formulations containing silicated chitosan exhibited almost similar in-vitro dispersion time and in-vitro drug dissolution pattern in comparison with formulation containing crospovidone. The intimate physical association between chitosan and silica creates an insoluble, hydrophilic, highly absorbent material, consequently, resulting in superiority in water uptake, water saturation for gel formation and compatibility. IR spectroscopic studies of silicated chitosan, silica, chitosan and chitosan-silica physical mixture indicated that preparation method did not involve any chemical reaction and only physical modification occurred on chitosan particles.