Iran Revolution 1979 Since the fall of the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Raza Pehlevi, following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 things have never been the same for The Islamic Republic of Iran. In the following research paper we will delve as to what led to the citizens of Iran to revolt against the shah, its effects on the country, its success or failure and finally comparing it with past and future revolutions. Iran had come under the rule of the Shah after his father abdicated the throne. Iran was ruled under constitutional monarchy under the Shah. The Shah’s father Reza Khan was a military officer who led a coup against the ruling Qajar dynasty in 1921, ending their 131 yearlong rule.
Topic Name: History of Military Coup in Pakistan INTRODUCTION The military is both an institution of the state and a powerful interest group. Pakistan is a point of turbulent civil-military relations. In the 68 years since Pakistan became an independent state, the military has overthrown democratic governments three times. On each occasion, the act was motivated by violation of law of the institutional interests of the military, and supported by sections of the elites, whose interests had also been compromised. Military dictatorships in Pakistan have been selfish motives and have set policies that heavily favoured elite groups such as the bureaucracy, Islamic clerics and rural landlords, at the expense of the tax payer money.
Which shows that dictators can inherited power, or gain a little bit power and then expand their power. An interesting dictator who took gained power by having some power first is Saddam Hussein, who took power from al-Bakr. After Hussein came to power, a list with the names of politicians that opposed Saddam were recited at a meeting that they were at. The politicians were taken to the court of law and trialled found responsible for treason, of the 68 politicians, 22 were executed. In early August 1979, many politicians that opposed Hussein were dead.
A military coup overthrew Juan Peron and restored Argentine oligarchy in 1955. During the 18 years Peron was imprisoned, Peron used Montonero insurgents as a primary means of breaking the resultant political impasse. Also used them as a bridge to a worker-based movement and to rebellious youth movements. Argentina experienced three failed attempts at rural guerrilla warfare between 1959 and 1969. By
The Argentina dirty war took place between 1976-1979. The Dirty War in Argentina started after a military junta overthrew President Isabel Martínez de Perón and established a military dictatorship. The military dictatorship took over the country, and ran rampant, doing anything they wanted to. The military seized people from the streets, they were likely to never be seen again. As more evidence of human and civil rights violations came to light, The relatives of the disappeared formed a group called the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo and held a demonstration that brought international attention to the government-sponsored terrorism.
For many years India struggled greatly for their independence. The three major events in the Indian fight against British rule were: the Golden Temple Massacre, the Salt March, and the homespun movement. During the Temple Massacre British and Gurkha troops killed at least 379 unarmed Indians meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh, to discuss nonviolent resistance and protest. However, the British had passed a law that said they were forbidden from encouraging and having meetings about nonviolent protests. The Salt March, which took place in India, was an act of civil disobedience.
1.1 Overview The Armed Forces of a country are its government sponsored defence, fighting forces and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their governing body and to defend that body and the nation it represents from external and internal aggressors. In broad usage the term ‘armed forces’ and ‘military’ are often treated synonymously. Sometimes, a country’s armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. The obvious benefit to a country in maintaining armed forces is in providing protection from foreign threats and from internal conflict.
The current ruling party after taking its position abolish the old system of the electoral system by the caretaker government and passed laws to conduct a general election under the election commission of the country. Unfortunately, the election commission failed to gain the trust of the opposition, consequently the boycotts last general election. Similarly, different laws are misused by the government to control the freedom of expression of the other political parties. Even the law enforcement agencies are used to suppress the voice of the civil societies. Furthermore, the list of enforced disappearances and extrajudicial killings has increased alarmingly during the last few
Third, there was a conspiracy between Soeharto and CIA to break the power of the PKI (Wieringa 2002:285). There was a bloody tragedy and political turmoil throughout the country. The number of victims is still unrevealed, but there are several predictions and claims up to three millions people (Adam 2008:10). Adam also mentioned that not everyone
Vital issues of statecraft and national security are determined by the pattern of institutional interaction between the civil and military components of a nation’s polity. The ordering of Civil – Military relations (CMR), therefore, lies at the heart of a nation’s security framework1. While being rooted in the firm and unambiguous political control of the military, a robust and vibrant relationship produces a polity that is alive to the nuances of national security and wise to the uses of military power. Those which fail to develop such a balance tend to get enveloped by stasis, squander scarce resources and run uncalculated risks. 3.