Muscles are essential for life. There are three types of muscles. Cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Four key characteristics for muscles are excitability, contractility, extensibility and elasticity. Excitability pertains to a muscles’ ability to respond to stimuli. This is important for external and internal changes in the body. Contractility is the ability to shorten when sufficiently stimulated. Extensibility is the capability to stretch or extend. When being contracted, muscle cells shorten; but they can be stretched even more when relaxed. Elasticity allows muscles cells to recoil and resume its resting length after being stretched out. These characteristics aid to permit movement, the up-keeping of stance and positions, stabilization of …show more content…
This group of diseases is caused by mutations that hinder the production of the proteins needed to create healthy muscles. Muscular dystrophy affects the muscles of the hip, pelvic area, thighs, shoulders and the heart (mda.org). There are different types of muscular dystrophy, all with different levels of severity. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscle dystrophy; accounting for more than fifty percent of all cases (nichd.nih.gov). It is prevalent in children; typically boys, age ranging from three to five. DMD is caused by a lack of the protein dystrophin. This protein helps to support and shield the muscle cells from injury (Darras). One will start to develop weakness in the upper legs and the pelvis. People with DMD usually fall a lot, have a hard time doing physical activity, have trouble rising for sitting or lying down, wobble when walking and have large calf muscles due to the accumulation of fat. The majority if DMD patients are incapable of walking by age twelve. They end up needing a respirator to aid with breathing. Most patients die in their teens or early twenties. Symptoms that caused their deaths are reported to be heart problems, infection and respiratory complications …show more content…
It can progress either quickly or slowly. It is also triggered by a lack of dystrophin. Symptoms of BMD are related to those symptoms found in DMD. People with Becker muscular dystrophy may walk on the tip of their toes, have regular muscle cramps, fall down a lot and may have a hard time getting up from the floor. Symptoms are usually found in males, age eleven to twenty-five. Some patients with BMD end up being confined to a wheelchair in their teens or their middle life. Others do not have such severe symptoms (nichd.nih.gov). Progressive muscles weakening affects more than just mobility. Breathing can be affected, especially during the night time. The weakened muscles may also cause curvature in the spine. Heart muscles are sad to have been weakened in certain cases, lowering the hearts’ effectiveness. Feeding tubes may have to be used if one’s swallowing is affected. Nutritional issues and aspiration pneumonia are possible problems that may evolve
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The disease Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy (1) in fact 3 out of every 10,000 births will result in a male born with this disorder (2). DMD is a recessive sex linked disorder that can only be passed down to the child if his mother is the carrier (2, 3). Symptoms for DMD are confinement to a wheel chair by the age of 11at the latest and are expected to die in their twenties to forties (2, 4). This is because DMD causes progressive muscle weakness and will reduce muscle tone throughout the body. Muscle weakness will usually begin its onset by the age of three (4).
Case Study of Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Introduction This case study is about Ehlers – Danlos Syndrome. Ehlers – Danlos Syndrome is a condition that cause connective tissue that cannot support the skin and it also affect the sign and symptoms of ehlers - Danlos syndrome. The person who has this type of condition (Ehlers - Danlos syndrome) there is a chance that the person can have flexible joints, stretchy, fragile skin which can lead an issue of a wound because the skin cannot heal a wound.
Rhabdomyolysis: an imbalance of toxins in blood due to the breakdown on skeletal muscle, could be just that. This disease can affect athletes of all ages and has devastating consequences. When, for instance a wrestler is hit hard on the mat and he injures a muscle, we normally wait for a bruise to arise and figure it will be gone quite soon. This impact on the muscle can actually lead to muscle damage or muscle death. The death of skeletal muscle tissue can leak poisonous intramuscular toxins such as myoglobin and creatine kinase (CK) into the blood stream and have you in the hospital within hours (Torres 2015).
Cystic fibrosis is a frameshift mutation. Parkinson’s disease is a nervous system disorder that effects the body’s ability to move. The disease comes gradually; it can start by having just a slightly shaky hand or foot and escalate to shaking all over. Sometimes there can be stiffness or result in not being able to move very quickly. The beginning stages of Parkinson’s can show very minimal symptoms.
Muscles are soft elastic tissues found throughout the human body, and are responsible for all of the body 's movements. Muscle importance is necessary in everyday life; simple actions like walking, and your cardiovascular system, all need muscles to properly function. Main muscle types like skeletal muscles; attach to bones through tendons, allowing for movement; they 're also voluntary muscles, which allows for manual control over the muscle. Another muscle type is smooth muscles, such as, the throat; they 're involuntary muscles which are automatically controlled. For instance, when swallowing food smooth muscles in your throat move it down towards your stomach.
Upon reviewing the given case study following factors identified, that the condition status: progressive Risk factor: age 23 yr. (young age), woman Observation: ptosis, sneering while smiling Reflexes: within normal limits Sensation: Within normal limits Weakness of the bilateral arm increased after exercise Symptoms: Intermittent facial muscular weakness, diplopia in late evening, dysphagia, and bilateral weakness increased after strenuous activity On behalf of the available information most probably condition could be a Nero, muscular disorder, Myasthenia Gravis .Condition could be confirmed by diagnostic test such as Tension Test, electromyography and presence of
Skeletal muscle injuries are a major problem faced by high-performance athletes and amateurs in different sports and often result in time lost from practice and competition [1, 2]. The impact caused by muscle injuries has led to the important search for new prevention strategies and therapeutic tools that can minimize muscle damage, enhance the repair process and optimize treatment. Muscle injury results in a rapid early response by neutrophils to remove necrotic tissue and monocyte infiltration that generates functionally diverse macrophage subpopulations, followed by regeneration of damaged tissue and resolution of inflammation within days after injury [3-6]. Initially macrophages adopt a pro-inflammatory or M1 polarization (classically
According to WebMD, the first type of spinal muscular disease is the most serious variant due to the fact that most children with type 1 fail to live past two years of age from breathing issues because the muscles that control breathing are feeble. Symptoms of type 1 include limp arms and legs as well as the trouble swallowing. Moreover, type 2 spinal muscular atrophy occurs with children from six to eighteen months old. According to the National Organization for Rare Diseases, children with type 2 are able to sit on their own, but fail to walk more than 10 feet, however, once they mature to a teenager, they will be unable to sit independently. A symptom common for people diagnosed with type 2 is the fingers quivering (National Organization for Rare Diseases).
Lower Extremity Ailments in Seniors Anyone can have a lower extremity ailment but the elderly people are the commonly affected since their lower limbs have already experienced a lot of wear and tear due to their old age. As you get older, you’ll have more difficulties getting mobile especially if you don’t lead a healthy life during your younger years. Physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of developing lower extremity ailments when they get older because of their weak and poor lower limbs. Watch out for these lower extremity ailments.
After time, ALS affects the ability to control the muscles needed to move, speak, eat, and breath. As known to researchers today, there are a few different forms of ALS. One type of this disease is called progressive bulbar palsy. Bulbar attacks the bulb shaped part of the brain stem first affecting the motor neurons needed for chewing, swallowing, speaking, and other facial muscles. It also attacks the vital organs.
3. Review of Literature 3.1 Parkinson’s Disease7 Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease comprising of a spectrum of motor as well as non-motor manifestations. The classic motor manifestations of the disease include rigidity, rest tremors, bradykinesia and impairment of the gait. Along with these cardinal features of Parkinson’s disease, freezing of gait, postural instability, speech difficulty, autonomic disturbances, sensory alterations, mood disorders, sleep dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and dementia are associated manifestations. The median age at diagnosis is 55 years.
At the age of two Alexis and Noah Beery were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. As the twins got older their symptoms did not match their diagnosis. The children experienced involuntary muscle contractions and spasms they were each given L-dopa which was a drug found to relieve their symptoms. As a result, the twins were diagnosed with Dopa Responsive Dystonia (DRD) which is the reduction in the amount of dopamine causing tremors and problems associated with movement. The children were able to function normally and go back to school.
Ability of muscle to lengthen and permit the joint to move through range of motion is known as flexibility. Flexibility of a specific jointis evaluated from range of motion. Efficiency and effectiveness of human movement is depends on muscle tissue length of specific joint.1 Flexibility of a person is might be limited due to several musculoskeletal overuse injuries and significantly affect a person’s joint ability. Hamstring is one of muscle groups that have a tendency to get shorten. Predisposing factor to hamstring strainhas been suggested due to lack of flexibility.2Wide range of activities such as running, jumping, forward bending during standing and sitting are contribute by hamstring muscle.3