Journals and diaries have been recommended for strategy training purposes to help learners develop metacognitive awareness of their thinking, learning and strategy use. However, it is not without concerns. Certain critics are concerned about the cultural issues as revealing one’s inner self may not be a practice in certain cultures. It is also argued that it is difficult, if not impossible, to prepare an objective criteria for evaluation since journal writing involves potential
In addition, his attitude makes the reading rebarbative. If the aim of this book is to guide students to gain experience, the language used in the text must be more encouraging and reinforcing. The same thing is effective in the process of teaching and the communication
The socio-cultural perspective of SLA asserts that language development is based on input coming from the environment and More Knowledgeable Others (MKOs). It is through these interactions that learners get exposed to the target language and develop vocabulary that will be employed when speaking, writing, listening, viewing, and lastly, reading. If the learner does not have enough interaction using the target language and if the environment does not provide sufficient English language input for learning, language proficiency would be affected. It can be said, then, that those who have not been exposed sufficiently to the second language as much will have weak vocabulary and will have a hard time comprehending what is being read and given. This will certainly affect academic performance especially that ESL classrooms nowadays tend to be constructivist in nature.
Colloquial language and reduced forms, and the use of hesitation devices make comprehension more difficult, therefore the extent to which the speaker uses these forms has a deep impact on the listener’s comprehension. Exposure to such language in form of authentic material help the listener improve their ability to comprehend natural language at a higher rate. (Van Duzer, 1997) Obviously, familiar content is another important contributor in successful improvement of listening skills. (Van Duzer, 1997) Activities that help the learner develop a skill to differentiate between main idea and supporting ideas is essential when designing listening activities in contrast with exercising mere memory skills, for instance, measured by true or false questions. (Van Duzer, 1997) Despite of different language levels, both Students A and B in question showed similarities in terms of these aspects, as well: Both of them had difficulties in recognizing authentic speech patterns featuring colloquial language and reduced forms, the higher level student taking, and also did not show potential for improvement in terms of identifying main ideas and supporting ideas of a speech, allowing that in case of the low ability student this sentiment reduced to the level of not being able to “hear out” basic key words in a simple sentence used in traveling
Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.
Abstract Learning a foreign language is considered a complex and gradual process and students who want to learn it should work hard to learn different skills in practice. Writing is one of the skills which is usually ignored since most of the time, the main focus is on making the language learners able to be a good communicator of the target language. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the problematic areas of writing which are related to coherence and cohesion of an essay, and also to give some solutions to overcome the difficulties. The problems included deficiencies in grammatical knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, word-for-word translation, cohesion errors and content knowledge. Keywords: Writing; Coherence;
In other words, language learners need to construct meaning while reading a text, and having adequate knowledge regarding the genre of the text can facilitate this process. It works as ‘textual schemata’, and it limits the ‘meaning-potential’ of a specific text (O’Sullivan, et al, 1994). In other words, having knowledge about genre is likely to play a significant role in enhancing the reading comprehension. Fowler (1989) has pointed out that “Readers learn genres gradually, usually through unconscious familiarization.” (p. 215) Thus, teachers can employ this technique to improve the learners’ reading comprehension. Timed reading is an activity which is usually done to increase reading speed (Nation, 2007).
On this note, it is of great importance to realise that interpersonal communication is a mutual reinforcing we engage in together with those that we communicate with. In simpler terms through interpersonal communication one is able to affect others by what they say or do. For instance when teaching the reading macro skill in English language learners are most likely learn most of the aspects such as pronunciations, reading speed as well as phonation through imitating the teacher. Therefore, it is through interpersonal communication that teachers are able to teach that which they might not be in good position to explain verbally through leading as an example. Apart from that, the teacher is able to recognise the attention he is getting from the learners as the lesson unfolds which will assist him to emphasise on key concepts through gestures and facial expression for consolidation.
119). With this in mind, the lesson discussed will make use of the Direct Method, which prioritizes meaningful communication over analysis of the focus language. Since the authentic text is an opinion piece that may evoke varying opinions on the part of its readers, the Affective Humanistic Approach should be employed to ensure a classroom atmosphere that is supportive and comfortable. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE SKILLS Modern pedagogical literature typically classifies language skills in the four named categories. Two of them, listening and reading, are classified as “receptive” skills, while speaking and writing are considered “productive” skills.” The ITTO textbook (ITTO p. 122) makes the interesting observation that language teaching might best prioritize the aural skills of listening and speaking, a sequence that would mimic the order in which a child naturally acquires his or her first language.
Some of them are really good in writing and reading comprehension but has the same problem that is to communicate in English, as well as their writings. What really create that limitation to some L2 learners? This study is to address that problem and to find its root. A few L2 learners feel intimidate by the language itself, thus reluctant to use it in their everyday interaction. Higher proficiency students occasionally ‘intimidate’ the lower proficiency students by their fluency in English and their remarks on the usage of ‘perfect’ English.