Observations Step Observation Adding sulfuric acid into the alcohol and carboxylic acid solution Surface of the round bottom flask is warm Poring the ester solution in the bottle after reflux Dense gas can be seen Washing the ester with distilled water The ester layer is immiscible with distilled water. Washing the ester with sodium carbonate solution Effervescence -bubbles of gas produced -a ‘pop’ sound could be heard when the separating funnel is closed and opened again. The ester layer is immiscible with the sodium carbonate solution Adding anhydrous calcium chloride into the ester solution Heat would be produced as the surface of the conical flask feels warm. Anhydrous calcium chloride crystals would clump up after swirling. …show more content…
Carboxylic acid would react with alcohol to produce ester and water molecules. The alcohol and carboxylic acid used in the experiment are organic chemicals. Carboxylic acid are very polar carboxyl group and alcohol are very polar hydroxyl group therefore the carboxylic acid and alcohol are very soluble in water. This however only applies to the lower member of the carboxylic acid and alcohol group. This is because the the lower member is a very polar molecule therefore the very polar alcohol/carboxylic acid would react with the very polar water molecules. In this experiment, 1-butanol is slightly soluble in water but ethanoic acid is very soluble in water. The reason why the higher members which is 1-butanol in this case have non-polar and polar bond and they are only slightly soluble in water is because the non-polar 1-butanol is dominant to the very polar water molecule, hence making it a non-polar …show more content…
When the solution reaches equilibrium, there would still be a large amount of reactants left. After the reflux, the ester solution produced would be poured into a bottle, this is when a dense smoke could be seen, this is because a hot ester is very volatile, this is when some ester solution would evaporate away, resulting in the poor yield of the ester solution. Another reason why the amount of ester gotten is so little is that the reaction is reversible therefore the reaction would not go to completion. The final reason resulting to the poor yield of ester produced is that during the isolation process where the ester solution is washed, some ester would be lost as some of the ester solution might be removed together with the organic
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Dropping Mentos soda causes a physical reaction, as they fall through the soda, the Mentos split up the carbon dioxide and water, releasing the carbon dioxide gas out of the bottle. After closing the lid after adding Mentos to a bottle of diet soda, you trap that gas, creating atmospheric pressure. When the bottle slams hard against the ground, the cap flies off and the gasses release, shooting the bottle into the air. The mentos should mix with the coke and settle in with each other and then they will start to reject each other building up tension after the cap gets hit with a certain amount of pressure it flies because of the gas like a mix between a hot air balloon and a catapult.
Based on the results, it is determined that the cyclohexane and ethyl acetate produce a positive deviation and chloroform and acetone create a negative deviation together. The cyclohexane and the ethyl acetate were unable to form any intermolecular bonds with each other, which created the low boiling points and the low azeotrope. The two compounds would rather stay in a pure status than be mixed together. The chloroform and the acetone created hydrogen bonding with each other, which increased the intermolecular forces. This caused the mixture to have high boiling points than the two pure liquids by themselves and create a high azeotrope.
The results do not support the hypothesis that a higher surface area to volume ratio would result in sulphuric acid being diffused into the agar cubes in the shortest amount of time. This is evident in the results as the exact opposite to what was predicted occurred. Instead of the smallest cube with the largest surface area to volume ratio of 1cm3 having the quickest diffusion rate, it conversely took the longest at 0.092 cm3 per second, whilst the 2cm3 cube with 0.0384 cm3 per second took the least amount of time. This directly refutes the hypothesis. There was also no consistent trend evident in the results.
Pop Tab Cans Pop Tab’s have revolutionized the way that we drink and store liquids in aluminum cans. Pop tabs have gone through many changes throughout the last century. The first version ever made was called the push-button and didn’t require any pulling of a tab just a poking of a church key or a long metal stick. After the push-buttons came the pull tabs. The pull tabs were supposedly invented by an engineer who went on a picnic and did not have a church key with him, so Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company decided to make a tab that you pull to reveal the “drinking hole”.
Aims of experiment • Determine the rate constants for hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl in solvent mixtures of different composition (50/50 V/V isopropanol/water and 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water) • Examine the effect of solvent mixture composition on the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl Introduction With t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, being a tertiary halogenoalkane, it is predicted that (CH3)3CCl reacts with water in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1 mechanism), where Step 1 is the rate-determining step. The reaction proceeds in a manner as shown
Pertaining to the appearance of the oil and water before the reaction occurs, oil “sits” on top of the water because oil is less dense than water, and therefore rests on the surface of the water. The Alka-Seltzer, or effervescent tablet, reacts with the water and produces bubbles of carbon dioxide gas. This gas is less dense than both the water and oil, so it travels the the surface of the liquid, pulling a small amount of the colored water with it and creating the “lava lamp” effect. The chemical reaction that is occurring is an acid-base reaction, and results from the reaction between the ingredients in the Alka-Seltzer tablets.
Alka-Seltzer is something that when it gets put into water it has a chemical reaction because it starts to bubble up and when it starts to bubble up the bubbles are carbon dioxide gas. Chemical reactions start when matter is mixed with other matter, you can recognize new compounds by their color or by their acid levels or how a compound looks, feels, or how it acts. Substances create a solid compound. The chemical reaction also happens from more products and properties. They can have one or more products or properties.
Beaker is then placed on a Remi magnetic stirrer and was kept stirring with a magnetic bead. While stirring it was plasticized with PEG 400 ( 12% w/w). After few minutes, Pectin was poured in it and kept stirring for 30 minutes. B) Ethyl cellulose solution: In a beaker of 250 ml and 100 ml of ethanol was taken in it. Beaker is placed on a Remi magnetic stirrer and the ethanol was kept stirring in it.
Assay of ATP-sulfurylase activity For the determination of ATP-sulfurylase activity in plant 0.3g fresh samples (leaf and root) were ground with chilled mortar and pestle using ice cool buffer consisting of 10 mm Na2EDTA, 20 mm Tris–HCl (pH 8.0), 2 mm dithiothreitol and approximately 0.01 g ml-1 insoluble polyvinylpyrollidone, using 1 : 4 (w⁄ v) tissue to buffer ratio. The homogenate was strained through gauze and centrifuged at 20 000 g for 10 min at 4 °C. The supernatant was used for the in vitro ATP-sulfurylase assay. ATP-sulfurylase activity was measured using molybdate-dependent formation of pyrophosphate. The reaction was started by adding 0.1 ml of the crude extract to 0.5 ml of the reaction mixture, which contained 7 mm MgCl2, 5 mm Na2MoO4, 2mm Na2-ATP and 0.032 U ml-1 of sulphate-free inorganic pyrophosphate in 80 mm Tris–HCl buffer (pH 8.0).
Ali Atwi : Internal assesment – calculating of the concentration of ethanoic acid in vinegar AIM : To calculate the concentration of ethanoic acid CH3COOH in vinegar using stoichiometric equations, ( Yamaha brand ) Introduction : I personally like to add a little bit of vinegar on my food because it makes it taste better, yet I know that vinegar contains acid, and I also know the consequences of highly concentrated acid intake, like severe itching and stomach ache, vomiting. Venigar contains a small percentage of ethanoic acid Ch3COOH. This practical aims to find out the concentration of the of the vinegar against a standard solution of sodium hydroxide soloution of concentration 0.1 mol dm3 through acid-base titration, the label on the bottle says 6%.
Purpose/Introduction The process of recrystallization is an important method of purifying a solid organic substance using a hot solution as a solvent. This method will allow the separation of impurities. We will analyze Benzoic Acid as it is dissolved and recrystallized in water and in a solvent of Methanol and water. Reaction/Summary
Thanks to the boiling chips, the heat is evenly distributed within the flask, which permits a more controlled boil and eliminates the possibility of the liquid in the flask bumping into the condenser. The tedious distillation process is rather simple: the beverage evaporates in the distillation flask and, having no where else to go, enters the condensing tube, where it cools down and is converted back into liquid form. From there on, this liquid flows into the final container, a graduated cylinder [preferably in an ice bath]. The extracted distillate is otherwise known as ethanol, a clear, colorless, flammable liquid, produced through the process of glucose fermentation and frequently used as an intoxicating agent in liquors.
This method which uses an internal standard and flame ionisation detector, is exact and more specific than methods usually used. The gas-liquid chromatography method determines ethanol clearly and separately from the other beverage components that would have interfered in other methods, without any distillation or need for a chemical reaction. Determination of ethanol is one of the most vital routine analysis in a current winery. This method provides frequent, rapid and accurate results are needed to regulate the quality of the wine from grape to bottle, as well as for state and federal government
Rediet Legese iLab Week # 6 CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION Introduction: The aim of this week lab experiment is to experiment distill crude oil and to check how temperature determine the chemical properties of crude oil plus how the boiling point can also show physical properties. They are two major finding in this experiment. he first finding was the point at which the raw petroleum is heated to the point of boiling, at 275 0C, the gas and kerosene oil are refined, however the oil (lubricant ) stays as an unrefined feature oil.