ABSTRACT To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate.
Title: Enzymes Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that are used in reactions in living organisms.
Observing the effects of a catalyst on an enzyme’s rate of reaction Leong, M., Kim, E., Nair, A. Achilly, K., 9/22/2015 Introduction: An enzyme is a protein that acts as a biological catalyst. A catalyst increases the rate of reaction by reducing the activation energy required (Reece 2005). Catalase, an enzyme produced by most living organisms, catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2 in our bodies in order to maintain homeostasis.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions enabling more products to be formed within a shorter span of time. Enzymes are fragile and easily disrupted by heat or other mild treatment. Studying the effect of temperature and substrate concentration on enzyme concentration allows better understanding of optimum conditions which enzymes can function. An example of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is enzymatic hydrolysis of an artificial substrate, o-Nitrophenylgalactoside (ONPG) used in place of lactose. Upon hydrolysis by B-galactosidase, a yellow colored compound o-Nitrophenol (ONP) is formed.
Introduction In class, a series of experiments were performed that pertained to the enzyme known as catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen. Due to peroxide being toxic to the tissues of both plants and animals, both possess the enzyme catalase, which breaks into two non-toxic compounds: water and oxygen gas. Enzymes are proteins that react to certain substrates to create a product, and continue doing so afterwards. Methods and Materials To test reactions between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, groups of three to four people were formed.
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the effects of the variables: temperature, pH, and enzyme concentration, on the enzymatic reaction rate of catalase and the level at which its products are released, measuring the rate of absorption using the indicator solution guaiacol and a spectrophotometer to develop a hypothesis of the ideal conditions for these reactions. My hypothesis is that the extremes in concentration, temperature and pH will negatively affect the Au rate. This experiment used 11 solutions contained in cuvettes. Each cuvette, once mixed, is placed in spectrophotometer and then a reading taken every 20 seconds. Cuvettes 1, 8, and 10 are used as blanks to zero out the spectrophotometer. They all lack the enzyme to help determine the absorption of just the enzyme.
Methods of Data Collection Measuring the independent variable: The pH (the independent variable) is being tested on the turnip peroxidase to observe the reaction rates. 5 levels of pH are required for these series of reactions so pH buffers of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 are to be placed in each of the waters that will be put into the cuvettes for the experiment. Measuring the dependent variable: A colorimeter must be used in order to calculate the reaction rate/absorbance level of the turnip peroxidase when the different pH levels affect it. The colorimeter can be used to measure the transfer of heat to or from an object.
1. What temperature will have the fastest reaction if a catalase enzyme and hydrogen peroxide are mixed together? 2. If catalase enzymes and hydrogen peroxide are mixed together, then the fastest reaction will occur when the test tube is placed in a 30 degrees C water bath because that is the temperature when and hydrogen peroxide react the fastest. 3.
They can only quicken reactions that will eventually occur, but this enables the cell to have a productive metabolism, routing chemicals through metabolic pathways. Enzymes are very specific for the reactions they catalyze; they make sure the chemical processes go in the cell at any given time. Peroxidase was the enzyme being testing in this experiment. A peroxidase is an enzyme that acts as catalysts, which occurs in biological systems. Peroxidase is found in plants, which they play a role in helping to minimize damage caused by stress factors or insect pests.
A simple change in temperature, a molecule out of place, and a sudden change in the pH level are just some of the things that can harm an enzyme 's reaction rate (the speed at which a chemical reaction proceeds) (5). To test the reaction rate of an enzyme, a lab was done to simulate what would happen to an enzyme under extreme conditions. The enzyme (represented by a hand) had to catalyze as many substrates as possible (represented by toothpicks) within 60 seconds. The experiment dealt with environmental factors such as extreme cold, presence of other molecules, etc. The lab that was simulated directly correlated to many of the topics discussed in class, like explaining the importance of enzymes and measuring the enzymes’ ability to function under different conditions.
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution
Results Figure 1. Effect of temperature on the reaction rate between catalase and H2O2 Figure 1 shows that the optimum temperature for catalase to catalyze hydrogen peroxide is around room temperature (30℃) as it has a very fast reaction rate (5). The overall trend is that temperatures that differ from 30℃, will decrease the reaction rate. Discussion This experiment supported the hypothesis, since catalase was the most effective with hydrogen peroxide when it was in an environment with a temperature of 30℃.