Turel and Patil (1996)  have established a rapid and selective method for the extraction of molybdenum with malachite green into nitrobenzene. The influence of solvent extraction variables on molybdenum extraction such as effect of pH, time of equilibration, solvents, effect of various anions and cations have been studied. On the basis of substoichiometric extraction method the constituent ratio of the metal-organic complexes was found as 1:1. The slope ratio method was also in agreement with the
Thus, Fig. 3 also presents the comparison of the curves calculated from the NRTL model with the experimental results for the quaternary system. In addition, the low RMSD values for NRTL and UNIQUAC confirm the ability of these models provide the LLE data in this work. Furthermore, successful prediction using the obtained binary interaction parameters by the simultaneous correlations (NRTL and UNIQUAC) of all the experimental LLE data of this quaternary system contributes to create a reliable conceptual design and process simulation and optimization of acetic acid extraction from
Different factors controls the quantity and quality of the alginates extracted from brown algae. The used raw material for alginate extraction should be a good for obtaining a high yield of alginate. A high quality alginate forms strong gels and gives thick aqueous solutions. Alginate is present in the cell wall of brown algae forming different salts of alginic acid as sodium, calcium and magnesium salts having different properties. For making the extraction of alginate salts more easily, the first step by acidification.
INTRODUCTION Alkalinity is a measure of the capability of water to absorb H+ ions without significant change of pH. In other words, alkalinity is a measure of the acid buffering capacity of water. Alkalinity has ability to maintain a relatively constant pH. The possibility to maintain constant pH due to the hydroxyl, carbonate and bicarbonate ions present in water. In some waters, there are found other species such as ammonia, borates, phosphates and silicates may contribute to the alkalinity.
Method of preparation: - The preparation method for lecithin organogel is quite simple and easy. Weighed amount of lecithin (350mM) is to be dissolved in non-polar solvent like isopropyl palmitate (IPP) or isopropyl myristate (IPM) with the help of vortexing and bath sonication. Triamcinolone acetonide (0.5%) was dissolved in previously formed micellar dispersion of Lecithin-IPP. Most critical and important step in gel formation is addition of polar solvent. As the above solution becomes clear and transparent, polar solvent is to be added, mostly water to it in very much less quantity.
The yield of chemical extraction depends on the type of solvents with varying polarities, extraction time and temperature, sample-to-solvent ratio as well as on the chemical composition and physical characteristics of the samples . In general acetone, water and methanol were commonly used as extraction mediums , In particular, methanol has been generally found to be more efficient in extraction of several compounds [6-9]. This might be due to the high polarity index of (5.1) Methanol. The bioactive compounds from plants belong to various chemical groups such as tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, lignins, terpinoids, etc., with various polarities and also with certain groups of non polar compounds. The non polar compounds also have the capacity to fairly soluble in methanol.
Allowing the solution to cool facilitated addition of DCM with minimal vapour formation, as well as lower the solubility of caffeine in water. Organic solvent DCM provided an immiscible layer to extract caffeine in liquid-liquid extraction. Due to differences in solubility of caffeine between 25°C DCM (14g/100g) and 25°C water (2.16g/100ml), caffeine molecules could be extracted from water to DCM at 25°C [2,3]. To account for the difference in solubility, the structure of caffeine must be taken into account (Figure 1). Caffeine has the ability to form hydrogen bonds with water as the Oxygen and Nitrogen atoms have free electrons.
Alcohols and aldehydes in alcoholic beverages can be monitored by capillary G.C or packed column G.C depending on target analytes and their concentrations since capillary columns offer efficient separations, capillary G.C is particularly beneficial in analysis of structurally similar compounds. The internal standard method allows a very accurate analysis to be performed, since the behaviour of the species of interest is compared to that of a known substance which is present in a specified amount. It is usual to include an identical volume or mass of the internal standard into each prepared standard. This facilitates easier calculations of the composition of the
The batch removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was investigated. The influence of pH, initial concentration of metal ion and contact time were also investigated. Kinetics of adsorption was found to follow pseudo-second order model. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm could be used to describe adsorption isotherm but the Langmuir isotherm was found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Kishor et al.
carboxymethylcellulose sodium and xanthan gum. This might be due to amorphous state of the drug in solid dispersions, wettability improvement, reduction in particle size and increase in the effective surface area over which the drug distribution increases. The results of study demonstrated the suitability of selected polymer xanthan gum and NaCMC in the preparation of solid dispersions as effective carrier for increasing solubility. As these swellable polymers are regularly used in conventional solid dose preparations and herbal polymer is readily available at low cost, this ensures about the availability, feasibility in use and cost effectiveness of the formulations. Overall, this research work presents a very simple but effective technique for dissolution enhancement using very common polymers.