The plantar interossei made with unipennate morphology and dorsal interossei made with bipennate. • There are three plantar interossei muscles in the foot. These muscles adduct digits three to five and help to move the metatarsophalangeal joints. • Four dorsal interossei muscles are found in the foot. And they locate between the metatarsal.
The menisci improve congruency between the femoral and condyles of tibia during this movement.27 Figure 8: Articular surfaces of knee joint (A- In extension, B- In flexion). EXTRACAPSULAR LIGAMENTS The ligamentum patellae is attached to the lower border of the patella superiorly and to the tibia tuberosity inferiorly. It is continuation of the central portion of the quadriceps femoris tendon.28 The cordlike lateral collateral ligament is attached superiorly to the lateral condyle of the femur and inferiorly to the head of the fibula. The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle.
The aspects that will be explained are movement, protection and the differences. The muscle and skeletal system work together to produce movement. An example of movement is the bones and muscles in the arm that help lift up an object. Tendons are fibrous tissue that connects adjacent bones to a muscle. A tendon is located at the top joint of a bone.
The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
The forearm is a complex anatomical structure between the elbow and the wrist that serves an important function of the upper extremity. The forearm consists of two parallel bones, the radius and the ulna. It forms a functional unit that can be considered both as an axis and a non synovial joint (). This “joint” can be best understood in term of two “condyles”, the distal radio-ulnar joint (DRUJ) and the proximal radioulnar joint (PRUJ) (). The capsule of the elbow joint and the annular ligament stabilize the bones proximally.
The hip joint is the attachment between the hind limb and the axial skeleton. The pelvis girdle consists of two identical hipbones that ventrally meet at the pelvic symphysis. Dorsally they articulate with the sacrum. Each hipbone consists of the ilium, pubis and ischium that have different ossification centers. In adults, these bones are completely fused and their bodies form the cavity for the articulation with the femur, the acetabulum (8).
The thumb gives an insertion for the flexor pollicis longus or FPL, ungual fossa, and a pair of ungual spines. The assymmetrical feature of the FPL make sure that the thumb pulp is always facing the pulps of the other digits, which provides the optimum contact surface with held
Muscle is a long bundle of flesh which is attached to the bones at both ends by tendons. Epimysium known as tough tissue which protect outer layer of muscle. Inside the epimysium are fascicles or bundles of muscle fiber cells. The fascicles are surround by a layer of perimysium tissue which act as connective tissue. The individual muscle fiber is covered with endomysium
INTRODUCTION Muscle tissue is one of the four primary tissue types consisting elongated muscle cells that are highly specialized for carrying out certain responsibilities. Muscles are responsible for movement of different parts of the body; posture; respiration; production of body heat; communication; constriction of organs and vessels and contraction of heart. General properties of muscles: Contractility is the ability of muscle to shorten forcefully although its shorten forcefully, it lengthens passively. Excitability is the capacity of muscle to respond to a stimulus. Often the stimulus is from the nerves that we consciously control.
Anatomically, the patella is of a disproportionate oval-shaped sesamoid bone which articulates with the femoral sulcus. Its proximal attachment is the quadriceps tendon which envelopes the structure and distally at the apex, the patellar tendon attaches. Both the tendons are functional as to stabilise the patella bone in the knee joint during movements or even when the joint is static. Also, the patellar retinacula are attached to both the medial and lateral sides of the patella. When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage.