Lab 2 – Water Quality and Contamination Experiment 1: Effects of Groundwater Contamination Table 1: Water Observations (Smell, Color, Etc.) Beaker Observations 1 There was no smell 2 When I pour the oil in the water I noticed the oil started to bubble to the top. So I got to stir the oil that’s when there were smaller bubbles. As I smell the water there was no smell to the water. Putting the vinegar I didn’t smell anything but I did see the water was a change it was dark that’s when I added the vinegar 4 I added the detergent and it look like a cloud with bubbles.
Each of the analyte will have its own Rf value under certain circumstances. The separation of the phospholipid classes can be improved by two-dimensional chromatography. This technique requires developing the TLC plate in a direction, then dried, and developed in a solvent mixture at a 90 ° the first development (Singh and Jiang,
Bubbles are round because they are ‘minimal surface structures’, which means that bubbles hold the least possible surface area they can. Out of all the geometric shapes, a sphere has the least surface area. Bubble soap is mostly made of water, soap, and glycerin. Glycerin is an organic compound, and its common sources are animal fat and vegetable oil. It is a clear, odorless liquid, and has a sweet taste.
Although it was hypothesized that the corn syrup would also contain starch, conducted research helped to clarify why this substance was void of starch. First of all, it was hypothesized that whipping cream would not contain starch, and this was confirmed when drops of an iodine solution was added to the test tube. No evidence of starch was observed, but there was a colour change from a white liquid to a yellow hue that stayed at the bottom of the test tube. However, the whipping cream simply took on the colour of the iodine solution, so there was no change that occurred that could have proved a chemical reaction. The reason why whipping cream does not contain starch is due to the fact that starch is found in plants.
Sodium hypochlorite is unable to remove smear layer during root canal therapy. Therefore, usage of NaOCl prior or after instrumentation produces superficially clean canals with the presence of smear layer 16,17,18,19. Although, when used alternatively with EDTA, removal of smear layer as well as soft tissue and debris is achieved. NaOCl gets inactivated with EDTA remaining active for a few hours 19,20,21,22. 92% of the non-endodontists were not aware about the use of sodium hypochlorite as a bleaching agent and considered irrigation to be its only use.
Among four types of surfactants, partially hydrolyzed PVA is most frequent used because it gives the smallest microsheres (Jeffrey et al, 1991). The amount of PVA used may affect microparticles properties. Freitas and coworkers have added 1.3% and 8% of PVA into an aqueous solution and found that both lower and higher concentrations of surfactant results in coagulation of the particles. Hence, these authors suggested to use 3% of PVA as it the most optimum concentration. (Freitas and Marchetti,
Standardization of NaOH solution Accurately weigh out a sample of approximately 0.3-0.4 g of primary standard potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHPh, which has been previously dried at 120°C. Do not use more than 0.4 g. To obtain an accurate mass, weigh the sample on weighing paper, slide it into a clean (but not necessarily dry) 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask and reweigh the paper to account for any KHPh that may remain on it. Dissolve the KHPh sample in about 50 mL of CO2-free water and add 2-3 drops of 0.1% phenolphthalein indicator. Begin adding the approximately 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution from the buret while continuously swirling the flask contents. Do not open the stopcock completely.
That bacteria can lead to cavities and infections, and really, isn’t an infection in the main hole in your face that’s pretty close to your brain about the last thing you want? Chewing gum, but no sugar! If chewing gums are good for the teeth, they will be only the sugar-free ones, or those in which the sugar is completely replaced by sweeteners (xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol). However, sugar is not recommended because it is cariogenic and represent the principal food for bacteria in our mouth. After eating the bacteria will produce acids that attack tooth enamel.
In addition, the lack of secretion of hydrochloric acid provides a suitable environment for a reproduction of gut bacteria. These bacteria feed on vitamin B12, so it reduces the amount of vitamin B12. In the second stage of the normal body, vitamin B12 moves to the duodenum and combines with IF after releasing from proteins. Then it enters the small intestine up to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) to break the IF, and absorb vitamin B12. However, in the second stage of pernicious anemia, the immune system becomes overactive.
Hydrochloric acid is found with the other gastric juices which are mostly potassium chloride, and sodium chloride. Hydrochloric acid is made up 5% of the gastric acids. It has a pH of 2. ("Role of Hydrochloric Acid in the Stomach | LIVESTRONG.COM," n.d.) Hydrochloric acid role is to purify the food you eat and prevent harmful bacteria from entering the stomach. The first thing that happens
The results support the hypothesis, the amount of duckweed in the containers with vinegar might have decreased due to the low pH level of the vinegar. The vinegar used in the experiment had an acidity of 5% and a pH level of 2.4, which but duckweed need a pH level of 6-7 in order to survive (McClung, 2013). The vinegar was too acidic for the duckweed to grow in, resulting in containers one and two turning white and decreasing in size faster than container three which only contained tap water. An explanation for why all three containers had a decrease in duckweed is that there was no oxygen added to them. Duckweed needs oxygen in order to grow, and since there was no oxygen constantly added to the containers they turned anaerobic resulting in death (“Growing Duckweed,” 2015).
Unknown #10 produced no identifiable macroscopic characteristics as a broth, so the first step was to Gram stain a loopful to determine the microscopic characteristics. Gram staining not only helped identify Unknown #10’s microscopic morphology but it also helped ensure the specimen was a pure culture—no other bacteria were visible when Unknown #10 was Gram stained and observed under the microscope. Unknown #10’s key microscopic morphology was that it was a very small, Gram negative bacillus. Though bacilli can possibly form endospores, no empty white centers were visible which suggested that Unknown #10 was not an endospore forming bacteria. No quick endospore stain was performed to validate this assumption since only one assigned organism was endospore forming and unlike Unknown #10, that organism was Gram positive.
Our last petri dish was minus DNA and lysogeny broth, in this petri dish we saw 7 colonies of bacteria and there were a light yellow color. These results mean that we didn’t infect that petri dish with ampicillin from the pipette. Our expectations were both unsupported and confirmed. For example, our minus DNA and lysogeny broth had bacteria growth while our LB/amp/ara plus DNA dish had no growth and did not glow. Some problems that might have occurred in the lab is that we either put too much ampicillin in our LB/amp/ara dish or we could have had all plasma and no bacteria.
The organism that was successfully cultured from the first lab was use to streak into other plates. Samples from the previously cultured MAC and blood agar were streaked on two different sides of an EMB, SS, and MSA plate. Samples of bacteria were also used to inoculate Citrate and TSI media. The inoculation of TSI and Citrate media were as follows: The materials were gathered, which include the previously cultured media, an inoculation needle and the Citrate and TSI medium. This procedure occurred in the presence a Bunsen burner.
More specifically, this lab was met in terms of gaining an understanding in separating an acid, base and neutral compound from a mixture and identify through melting point. Overall, the experiment was successful as the acid (benzoic), base (5-chloro-2- methoxyaniline) and neutral (biphenyl) compounds were correctly identified. The separation of mixtures compounds to give pure components is of great importance in chemistry and in specific in organic chemistry. Many synthetic reactions give mixtures of products and it is important to isolate the wanted compound with a precise methodology of extraction and purification. Identification of the compound can always be identified by melting point