Mention the principles of teaching a foreign language. What are the justifications for them? Upon my reading, this essay discusses the principles of teaching a foreign language. In my point of view, a foreign language is a language which is used in another country by a huge group of people who have the same cultural aspects, for example, English is a foreign language for Egyptian people. To learn a foreign language there are some essential elements have to be taken into account including materials (text) and teaching (educator) when these elements mixed together the motivation for the learner will be strengthened.
It stresses the secondary benefit to be gained by improving performance in activity or occupation despite ongoing physical dysfunction. Supplementing external aids to promote problem-solving with residual capabilities is a crucial part of this frame of reference. Useful approaches within this frame of reference for the case of Sarah would be compensatory approach and adaptive skills approach. Compensatory approach is widely used to compensate for dysfunction in mobility, self-maintenance and domestic activities, and methods of compensation may include the supply of assistive equipment, modification of the environment and organization of social assistance. The adaptive skills approach aims at helping the person to adapt his/her existing skills to master problems and cope independently in various circumstances.
This is attributed to boys’ attitude towards learning a foreign language. For boys, a foreign language subject is traditionally for women (Clark, 1995); thus, creating conflict between performed masculinities and language practice (Carr & Pauwels, 2006). Foreign or second language acquisition is also known to depend on the teaching approach of the educator. Some educational experts suggest that a natural approach is the most effective way of teaching. As opposed to rote learning, where students are asked to memorize words and focus on structures and rules, the natural approach is a process of learning that focuses more on language comprehension and terminology usage so that they can be used in communication (Terrel & Krashen, 1983).
The value of considering teaching approaches is it will help structure the lesson around a coherent assembly of activities. The main topic of the lesson that was apt was on Cultural Awareness. Being that this is a more intangible concept compared to grammar or vocabulary, a clear teaching approach will benefit the abstract nature of the topic. The teaching approach selected for this topic was the Affective Humanistic Approach, which stresses, “respect, communication, self-actualization, and a comfortable classroom atmosphere”. The reason this approach lends itself to the topic so well is that many themes in the Affective Humanistic Approach are similar to the idea of Cultural Awareness.
Moreover, the teaching concept of natural approach is that the language instructors will advice the students to understand the factors or elements of language learning process. But at the same time, the students may face a new difficulty in learning the new language than the basic knowledge they have already acquired. It is just to enrich the knowledge of the students a little bit higher than of their previous
Learning a foreign language has always received enough attention from researchers in the field. From mid-nineteenth century, approaches to teaching a foreign language started to develop and continued to the present time. However, teaching a foreign language through an appropriate methodology is one thing, and learners’ feeling towards learning it is another. Attitude is one of the crucial affective factors in learning a second/foreign language. Attitude is “a favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction toward something or someone, exhibited in one’s beliefs, feelings or intended behavior” (Myers, 2010 as cited in Narváez, Elena, Gómez & Antonio, 2017, p. 23).
In spite of a teacher who is not well equipped, the structural approach is conducive as it has the potential for developing reading and writing skills. The teacher can handle a large number of students through group drill techniques and can teach without any aids. This approach seems to be practical for a country like India where human and material resources are limited but the learners’ number is ever increasing. The disadvantage of this approach is strict vocabulary and structures which lead to discouragement of reading habit and it never pave way for the acquisition of natural vocabulary. Another drawback of this method is uninteresting reading materials which is the outcome of high importance given by the course designers to vocabulary and structure that fails to kindle the learners’
On the other hand, Perez (1984), and Polland (1991) found that instrumental orientation (a desire to acquire a language as a means for attaining instrumental goals is associated with active involvement in classroom interaction. Gardner and Macintyre (1991) found that both integrative and instrumental motivation influence language learning
Functional-notional approach was the earlier version of communicative language teaching. In this approach the designers had the full authority to in cooperate the main goals and create the effective environment for the learners to learn the language through communications. In communicative language teaching approach the teacher always lead the role as a facilitator or coach and push the students to communicate in English to improve their language through communication or interaction. The curriculum of the government secondary schools in Malaysia should use communication language teaching in the secondary schools for several important
Furthermore, such an approach can meet demands of different kinds of learners. On the other hand, it has disadvantages to some extent. It may be more appealing or helpful since it is mainly student-centered and develops learner 's autonomy. Nonetheless, it may be disadvantageous when it comes to usage of time as it requires more time. It stands to reason that the inductive approach to instruction is more practical for young learners at elementary.