PART B: Programming in C In this part the programs are done for Taylor’s Stability Number and Limit Analysis Method. The friction circle method is graphical procedure that can be used for analyzing the stability of homogeneous slopes. It was popularized by Taylor in 1937. With the help of results obtained by this method, graphs were plotted between angle of inclination and stability number to calculate factor of safety. And the method is known as Taylor’s Stability Number.
In order to predict the peak strength of concrete with external FRP of different unconfined strengths Riad Benzaid and Habib-Abdelhak Mesbah propose an equation based on the results that were obtained in Table 4.4. Figure 4.8 displays the interaction between fl,eff /f’co and f’cc/f’co. It can be observed that the strength ratio is proportionate to the volumetric ratio and the effective lateral confining pressure of the FRP is inversely proportionate to the unconfined concrete strength. Hence a linear graph is produced. Figure 4.8 Strengthing Ratio Vs Actual Confinement The following equation can be used to establish the trend line: 〖f'〗_cc/〖f'〗_co =1+2.20 f_(l,eff)/〖f'〗_co Equation 9 Where; f’cc = the compressive strength of the confined concrete; f’co = the compressive strength of the unconfined concrete; fl,eff = effective maximum lateral confining
The procedure adopted has been by using the design of experiments approach with three level full factorial designs by varying the Joint Clearance. For a three level, one variable full factorial design 31=3 runs have to be performed. This gives three output configurations for each angular step considered for the simulations. The response surface has been fitted accordingly from the output responses obtained for the three points. A second-order model has been found to be accurate enough in approximating a portion of the true response surface with parabolic curvature, which is expressed
Schematic Diagram of Universal Testing Machine for Tensile Test Tensile Strength as per satisfactions = Force Load/ Cross Sectional Area Tensile strength at Yield Point (MPa) = Max. Load noticed (N)/ Cross section Area of specification (mm2) Tensile strength at Break Point (MPa) = Load at break noticed (N)/ Cross section Area of specimen (mm2) Tensile strain ratio = Change in Length of specification /Original Length of specification (gauge length) Elongation at yield point (Δ L) = ɛ (the recorded value at the yield point on the x- axis) X L point . Percent elongation at yield point = change in length X 100 Stress- strain
For bending Fatigues S-N curves have been obtained. There has been many tests being conducted on the behaviour of tension and compression on strain control. Some of the authors perform their tests through sinusoidal loading. For estimation of bending fatigue in cement A basic approach was WEibull distribution of survival probability was taken which indicates the failure possibility for a constant amplitude and given frequency. Some of the methods also applied by authors is to use data science technique to predict failure strength of materials like steel Understanding each step we get 1.Preprocesssing Understanding and cleaning the data for proper normalization is one of the most important steps for effective data mining.
(Russell, 2009) made a comparison of modulus of rupture versus concrete compressive strength shown in figure (2.24) for data by (Shideler, 1957), (Malhotra, 1990), (Hoff, 1992), (Heffington, 2000), (Ramirez, 2000), (Meyer, 2002), (Tasillo, 2004), (Harmon, 2005), (Ozyildirim and Gomez, 2005). These data were for a variety of concrete unit weights, aggregate sources, curing conditions, and specimen sizes. Slate (1986) recommended a modulus of rupture as Eq. (2.19) for compressive strengths from 20 to 60 MPa for moist cured lightweight concretes. MR= 0.21 (fc') 0.5 (2.19) Where: MR is the modulus of rupture in MPa; fc' is the cylinder compressive
Load deflection behavior The test results of Ultimate load and deflection are given in Table 4. It shows that the addition of fibers into the concrete increased the load carrying capacity and deflection at ultimate load. HSBC1 and HSBC2 specimens’ ultimate load is 24 kN the same value was obtained for the Hybrid fiber reinforced high strength concrete specimen – HYFBC2.1. The graphs are shown in Figure 6. When the beam is subjected to cyclic loading, the graphs are shown in Figure 7.
These values were recorded and the average of them was found. • The Vickers hardness value was found by reading the correspond value to the average diagonal length off of a chart. Brinell Hardness Test The Brinell hardness test uses a small 10mm diameter steel ball and a load of 3000kg to form a dent in the sample. It is held in place for a preselected time and then removed. The diameter of the resulting impression is then measured and a chart is consulted to find the corresponding Brinell hardness value.
Figure 1: Variation of the lift according to the incidence angle of a rectangular thruster ( ) For low incidences (below 10°), where the linear approximation is valid, the results of our model are close to the experimental results , which proves the validity of our calculation code. 3.1.2. Effect of the aspect ratio Figure 2 shows the effect of the aspect ratio of a non-twisted rectangular thruster on its performance which is characterized by the drag polar curve: the lift according to the induced drag . Figure 2 : Effect of the aspect ratio on the drag polar It is clear that the increase of the aspect ratio causes an increase in the lift and reduction in the induced drag and consequently the increase in the thruster efficiency. 3.1.3.