However, literary traditions about the Umayyads strongly suggest that the religious nature of the conquests dissolved after Muhammad’s death at 632 AD. The Arabs have not yet taken seriously a religious conflict with the Christian Byzantine Empire. Martin Sicker notes that when Damascus, “a major centre of Christian life in the East,” fell to Khalid ibn-al-Walid in 635 AD, Khalid preserved the Damascene churches, and merely asked the Damascenes to “pay the poll tax,” signifying a tolerance for Byzantine Christians. Although Khalid, as Cook also notes, was appointed a military commander by Muhammad himself, his tolerance of Christians imply that the further conquests of the Arabs after Muhammad’s death were no longer motivated by religion. Daniel W. Brown also writes that amidst the conquests of the Arabs, “Christians continued to be Christians and Jews continued to be Jews.” Another scholar, G. R. Hawting, argues that the first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty, Caliph Mu’awiya, “was respectful of the traditions of his Christian subjects” that he has a member of a Greek Orthodox family as a political official and advisor.
All of that prove that Egypt was the main obstacle to the crusaders and the main defender of all Muslim nations because it managed to stop the invasion of the crusaders to the Islamic states (Richard, 2001). To conclude, the main political rational leading the European powers to participate in the seventh crusade was to recapture Jerusalem from Muslims after it was taken in the battle of La Forbie in 1244 because the crusaders considered Jerusalem as the center of the Christian universe because it has many landmarks of their religion and the second aim of the seventh crusade was to prevent Egypt from the defense of Jerusalem and the rest of the holy lands from the crusaders because Egypt was considered to be the main defender of all Muslim nations at that time, but the seventh crusade failed in achieving their aims and led to the defeat of the crusaders by capturing Louis LV, his soldiers and forcing him to hold a peace treaty with
The papacy tried its best efforts to end the war. Jacques Fournier became the Pope in 1334 and took the name, Benedict XII. At the start of the war in 1337, he attempted considerable efforts to prevent the outbreak of hostilities, however he did not succeed. In 1378 Pope Urban VI was elected the Pope by the College of Cardinals. The Cardinals regretted their choice and selected Pierre Roger, who was elected the Pope in 1342 as Clement VI.
It is to be noted that Christianity was spread by the sword as well by the Romans after the Emperor Constantine and then by the Crusaders, and later by the conquistador and other Europeans (that is, invaders, colonists) in the name of missionary accomplishment (Ibid). The second largest religion is Islam and the believers are known as Muslim. They believe in the teachings of Mohammed. Their principle beliefs are that no God exists but Allah, each Muslim must pray five times a day, they must fast during the month of Ramadhan, and make a trip to Mekka at least once during their lives. It is believed by Muslims that if these rules are followed they would be alive and be united with Allah one the day of judgement.
The weakened Persian Empire fell victim to an army of Muslims bent on global conquest. The Muslims quickly absorbed Persia into it’s rapidly expanding empire. Also, the Byzantine strongholds of Jerusalem, and Byzantine territory in Egypt and other parts of North Africa fell to the Muslims. The Muslim forces marched to the walls of Constantinople, but they were repelled by a Byzantine weapon known as “Greek fire,” an incendiary weapon that was developed in 672. They used it in naval battles.
In certain instances, Mandeville portrays the Islamic religion as an obstacle which Christendom is not only able to defeat, but that they are destined to do so. The first evidence occurs when the author describes the town of Surry, the port of entry to Syria. Mandeville claims they guard the harbor closely, “because of the fear they have of Christian men. ” This translates to a European audience that Muslims are afraid that a European invasion could realistically threaten their control of the East. In other words, the Islamic armies know that eventually, according to Europeans, the Christians will attempt to take back what’s “rightfully theirs.” Mandeville reflects this aspect of the European psyche later in the book, as when he discusses how the Turks currently hold Jerusalem, “but by
Traditional Catholicism was declared as the only pathway to God in the 1520s, and the Inquisition was used to eliminate the rise of religious beliefs associated with Lutheranism and Protestantism. Its attack on Alumbrados, associates of the Illuminist movement, and the inclusion of Alumbrado heresy in the edict of faith in 1525 were also indicative of Charles’ determination to rid Spain of heretical beliefs. By the 1530s, the Inquisition campaigned to ‘turn Spain into a fortress against heresy,’ and individuals associated with Protestantism were persecuted. By 1540, Protestants became the main targets of the Inquisition, and conversos ceased to be present in inquisitorial trials. Thus, under Charles, the authority of the Inquisition was increased to eliminate heretical beliefs, resulting in more gains than losses to the Crown and Catholic
The firearms specifically helped him win the Battle of Adwa which was fought on 1 March 1896 against Italy. The battle was fought due to a simple misinterpretation since the Treaty of Wichale was interpreted by the Italians as giving Italy a protectorate over Ethiopia. When Menelik heard about the Italian interpretation he denied having agreed to it and renounced the treaty giving reason to start a battle like the one in Adwa. This crowning battle secured Ethiopian sovereignty as it was a resolute defeat for the Italians. He turned to the Italians and French as well as to other European countries for Western technology too.
Prester John was rumored to be a Christian Priest and king who was in battle with the Muslims. This legend emerged in Europe during the Crusades in the twelfth century, where they at the time were attempting to take back land form the Muslims that they believed the be their Holy Land. There were high hopes among the Europeans that this mysterious Prester John would help them to fight the Muslims in a forged alliance. Word of a letter that claimed to be from the legendary Prester John himself began to circulate around Europe. As Prince Henry was dedicated to the spread of Christianity and largely fixated with the legend of Prester John, he devoted many expeditions to finding the Christian hero from the legend.
Soon after, the French launched a naval expedition to punish the Vietnamese regime. The first attacked in 1858 failed to achieve its objectives. A second attacked the following year was more successful. In 1862, Emperor Tu Duc surrendered several provinces in Mekong Delta to France. In 1880s the French continued their advance, launching an attack on the Red River Delta with the main reason of protecting French citizens in the area.