The Causes And Consequences Of The Second Crusades

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For nearly 200 years, Christians engaged in a series of holy wars with the Muslims in what is now known as the Crusades. The First Crusade is marked by a specific act on November 27, 1095. In an open field, outside the city of Clermont in Auvergne, Pope Urban II gave an impassioned speech to the people gathered. In this speech, Urban II urged his hearers to take part in a military expedition to the East. As a result, the mighty papal-sanctioned armies captured Edessa, Antioch and Jerusalem. The Second Crusade besieged Damascus yet failed to capture it. The Third Crusade was launched to retake Jerusalem from Muslim commander Salah al-Din but was unsuccessful. However, Salah al-Din was willing to make peace with the crusaders by guaranteeing the safety of Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem. The Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople installing a Catholic ruling in the city. The Fifth Crusade attacked Egypt capturing Damietta. The crusaders then marched to take Cairo only to be trapped by the flooding of the Nile River. Damietta was given back to the Muslims in order to make peace. Thus, the crusade accomplished very little. However, the Sixth Crusade, led by Frederick II (self proclaimed King of Jerusalem) secured Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem as well as the roads liking the holy places to Acre. Although the Crusades continued for several more centuries, the Ninth Crusade, which is sometimes grouped with the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, marked the
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