In fact the molecules of water touching the hull are moving exactly with the hull (Hamlin, 1989, p. 49). Turbulent velocity profile in a pipe (Gillmer & Johnson, 1932, p. 215) By changing the diameters of the tubes, the flow rate, and the fluid kinematic viscosity, he was able to determine that the breakdown of the laminar flow into turbulence appeared to depend on a dimensionless combination of these variables that equalled approximately 2000, unless great care was taken not to disturb the incoming flow. Rn (critical)=PuD/µ≈ 2000 u = Average fluid velocity D = Pipe diameter µ = Dynamic viscosity of fluid The critical Reynolds number of about 2000 defines when transition from laminar to turbulent flow may being for internal pipe flow (Gillmer & Johnson, 1932, pp. 214-215). In simple terms, laminar flow is where viscous forces predominate and a turbulent flow is where viscous forces are overtaken by inertia forces.
Microcalorimetry experiment was performed on Setaram−C80 heat flow calorimeter coupled to a multiport high-vacuum homemade glass manifold. A specific amount of the sample (approx. 500 mg) was taken into a sample cell, reference cell was taken as empty and together they are connected with Pyrex tee. The sample was heated from room temperature to 200°C under vacuum and kept for 2 h, then 3-4 doses of helium gas were introduced into the system to remove any excess residue such as moisture or organic impurity from the system. The system was heated for 4-5 hr under vacuum at 200°C and then cooled down to the temperature (50°C) where we want to perform the adsorption study.
The peel powder was soaked overnight (or for desired period) at room temperature (30-32°C) for extraction with intermittent shaking. After extraction, it was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min and filtered through Whatman No. 2 filter paper. The effective volume obtained after centrifugation was noted. 2.3 Determination of radical scavenging activity (RSA) Determination of RSA was carried out according to Murthy, Jayaprakasha, & Singh (2002) using DPPH as stable free radical and butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) as standard.
This paper introduces an important phenomenon that negatively affects the populations and the environment. Through it we aim to spread the awareness to the public and suggest a daily, simple and environmentally friendly life style and routine.The paper discusses the inflation of hurricanes intensity resulting from high temperature, which based on climate change phenomena. Through the last years, our earth has experienced a rise in the number and in the intensity of hurricanes. The impacts that these hurricanes lefts behind is enormous to human, environment, and economy. Preventing hurricanes from appearing is impossible, but by reducing the earth's temperature we can reduce hurricane's intensity, which can be by using the education, technology,
3) Then, the boiling tubes were left in a water bath at 45°C. After 5minutes, the boiling tub, labelled A, was withdrawn from the water bath. 4) The sample was filtered using a Buchner funnel, collected in a sample vile, labelled A, and positioned securely to dry and crystallise in an oven at 65°C. 5) After 45minutes, the boiling tube, labelled
PNPG was incubated with different substrate concentrations at 55°C and released 4-nitrophenol was continuously measured at 410nm for 5 minutes in UV-2550 (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan) spectrophotometer coupled to an accessory TCC-240A to control the temperature of the glass cuvette. Initial velocity was calculated based on the milimolar extinction coefficient of 2.8 for 4-nitrophenol at 55°C. The calculated initial velocity data were linearly fitted to the Lineweaver Burk plot equation to calculate Km and Vmax (Wilkinson 1961). For cellobiose, under similar conditions the reactions were performed for 1 hour, and the initial velocity was calculated by taking data points at different time intervals during one hour of the incubation. The reaction product glucose was measured by the GOD-POD kit (Accurex Biomedical Private Limited, Mumbai, India), as described
Besides water the loss will include other matter volatile at 105 ºC [2,4]. Sample of five grams was weighed into a pre-weighted flat dish (W1) and dried at an oven temperature at 105 ºC for 3 h (W2). It was allowed to cool in an airtight desiccator, reweighed and again heated in the oven for half
Acetonitrile at a PH of 7 (neutral) is added to each of the test tube samples. Mix the samples on a vertex shaker for 3 minutes and transfer to a 20 ml centrifuge tube and place in a TurboVap under 5-psi nitrogen at room temperature and allow it to completely dry. The dry resides are now put in 1ml of acetonitrile for testing (analysis). 4. Chromatographic Condition 10ml of the extract is now taken to be analyzed using a mass spectrometer and a liquid chromatograph.
All sea cucumbers are ocean dwellers, though some inhabit the shallows intertidal zones while others live in the deep ocean of 5,000 m and more. Most sea cucumber species live between 5 and 10 years in the wild. Description: Sea cucumbers are named because of their resemblance to the vegetable cucumber. They have leathery skin and soft bodies, even though like all echinoderms, sea cucumbers have an endoskeleton just below the skin. The sea cucumber skeleton usually consists of plates and spines that can be exposed and used against predators.
The unknown metal ion was identified, from the observation of the reactions of the known and unknown metal ions. B. Identification of inorganic compounds in aqueous solution 1. A procedure was developed and carried out to determine whether double displacement reaction occur when solutions of the following five compounds are mixed. Only four drops of each of the solution was used for each of the reaction.