(Eds. ), Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Strategies for Crop Improvement. Wiley, New York, pp. 155–159. Effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defence systems in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Khaled Taïbi a,c,d,⁎, Fadhila Taïbi a, Leila Ait Abderrahim a, Amel Ennajah b, Moulay Belkhodja c, José Miguel Mulet.
Salinity dramatically impedes plant growth, leading to a decrease in crop yield and quality. This occurs due to two mechanisms: osmotic stress and ion toxicity. Osmotic stress occurs because saline soils have high osmotic potential, so plants which grow in saline soils have difficulty taking up water, resulting in low cell turgor and slow shoot growth. Ion toxicity occurs because saline water moves up the transpiration stream, causing Na+ and Cl- to accumulate
Soil salinity could be a result of either the intrusion of seawater into the agricultural area, or of a raise in salt-affected groundwater. Apart from this, salination also commonly occurs as a result of human activities such as irrigation, residual of soil and water amendments, use of animal waste and chemical fertilizers (Kader,
This change has many effects that can appear through the reduction of chemical and physical qualities of the soil resources. FAO (1993) further stressed that soil degradation is the sum of geological, climatic, biological and human factors which lead to the degradation of the physical, chemical
By examining the data as a whole a trend of decreased cellular respiration in seedlings soaked in solutions with increased NaCl concentrations. The water treatment which had a 0% NaCl concentration had a higher respiration rate than the seedlings soaked in the 3% NaCl concentration. This overall trend of the data supports the
Genetic engineering is much more precise than conventional hybridization and so is less likely to produce unexpected results. Nowadays the market demands only excellent quality plants even though most of these goods will not be seen while being consumed (vegetables in soup). This trend forced farmers to apply genetic engineering on all crops. Since GMOs are now protected against threats to strong yields, they are now more resistant especially when it comes to having longer life and so on. According to Cornell University in the article “what is Agricultural Biotechnology?” An example for the effectiveness of GMOs are the Papayas that were hit with papaya ring spot virus which devastated the crops by 40 percentage reduction in only five years.
The environment affects an organism in many ways, at any time. To understand the reactions of a particular organism in a certain situation, certain environmental factors are taken into concern, separately, if possible. These factors controlling stress conditions alter the state of equilibrium in the organism and lead to a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in the organism i.e. plants, which adversely affects their growth, vigor and yield. Thus, plant stress has been defined by Lichtenthaler (1996) as ‘any unfavourable condition or substance that affects or blocks a plant’s metabolism, growth or development.’ .
Climate is one of them. With new understanding that climate change is real, happening and inevitable, the complexities involved in farming have become manifold. In those countries where majority’s livelihoods are intertwined with farming pursuits, the challenges in agriculture would seriously threaten livelihood: push them to face more unpredictable situations. The effect of rising temperature and more unpredictable rainfall patterns are going to test the informed decisions farmers have to make in order to survive in farming and sustain their living. Contribution of chemical fertilizer and pesticide industries to climate change is well known (Leis, 2008).
Insect’s pests and diseases have the potential to cause 52, 58, 59, 74, 83 and 84 percent loss in wheat, soybean, maize, potato, rice and cotton respectively (Sharma et al. 2001). In the 5 mandate crops of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the biotic and abiotic stress factors have been estimated to cause a loss of