Aerodynamic Principles of Flapping Wings The aerodynamic principles of the aircraft with flapping wings or the ornithopters are different from the principles of the normal aircraft (in which the wings are fixed). For the normal aircraft, there is only one component or one source of the airflow passing through the aerofoil which is the airflow that caused by the forward motion of the aircraft. It acts in the direction that is parallel to the flight path but in the opposite direction. In this case, the force that acts perpendicular to the airflow will be equal to the lift force. However, for the ornithopters, there are two airflows passing through its aerofoil.
A supersonic inlet is made up of two distinct parts. First, the flow is compressed supersonically from the velocity of the flight vehicle or, in other words, the free stream Mach number. This can be achieved by reducing the flow area as the flow proceeds downstream. In this area, the flow velocity is reduced via a series of compression waves and/or oblique shocks. Flow velocity is reduced to a minimum speed at the duct minimum area, also known as the throat of the inlet, where the
Energy from the moving plane is transferred to the air molecules. At the end of the day, some of the kinetic energy. From the airplane is given to the air molecules, slowing down the airplane and accelerating the encompassing air. The amount of energy lost by the airplane is precisely the amount of energy transferred to the air. This is a case of the First Law of Thermodynamics that states energy cannot be made nor decimated.
In this paper an attempt is made to study the Lift and Drag forces in a wind turbine blade for NACA4412 Airfoil profile is considered for analysis. In the present work, the numerical and experimentally analysis lift and drag performances of NACA 4412 airfoil at different attack angle for Reynolds numbers (Re) 3 ×105 by measuring
Compared with fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, and even those with high-efficiency, slowly rotating propellers, omithopter shave the potential to be the quietest of any aircraft design. In addition to low audio profiles, ornithopters are inherently well suited to small scale aerial vehicles because of their aerodynamic properties. A flapping-wing aircraft has considerable advantages in small-scale designs because of efficient operations at low Reynolds numbers combined with the ability to fly by thrust alone. Though the small size means that micro ornithopters are more susceptible to wind gusts than larger vehicles, the potential for enhanced maneuverability, including hovering, and even backward flight, makes flapping wing designs a subject of keen interest. Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) currently in development, are proof that ornithopter technology, though still in the early stages of development as a technology, has much to contribute to the science of aerial remote
Lift and drag Lift is the component of the force that is perpendicular to the on coming flow direction. It contrasts with the drag force, which is the component of the surface force parallel to the flow direction . The lift and drag are the two primary factors to be considered for any aerodynamic analysis. In wind turbine blade analysis the lift force must be greater than drag force to improve the efficiency of the wind turbine. B.
Flight Adaptation in birds: Effective flight is possible only when two requirements are met, light weight of the body and the supply of energy. Hence, the organs that are modified for effective flight are: 1. Birds have short body with compact bones. This reduces the weight of the body and makes it light. 2.
The gearbox, generator etc. are located at the ground thus eliminating the nacelle and simplifying the design. Easy maintenance and inspection. Cost also gets reduced. FACTORS CONSIDERED WHILE DESIGNING VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE Some of the main factors are: Wind speed It is the most important factor because higher the speed easy is the rotation of turbine blades.