Introduction Learning theories are the core guidance on planning the educational system. With the knowledge of the general principles,educators can manipulate their knowledge more efficiently to meet with diversity in learning circumstances. Theory by general definition is a the establishment and an explanation of the way brain acquiring knowledge. It is a sequence of a hypothesis that corresponding to each other which should be able to outline, clarify, predict or have control of the scenario. Learning theories defined as a description of learning and the approach towards the way a person obtain, assemble and use their skills and knowledge.
Learners come to education with bits of specific former knowledge and skill related to the field at hand. In Norman's (1982) terms, three overlapping stages of learning are then distinguishable: the accretion of new information, and its chunking, elaboration, and connection to existing knowledge; its restructuring, through which new knowledge organizations are formed, usually to replace or reformulate old concepts and relations; and, finally, the tuning or adaptation and practice of knowledge structures in particular uses. In Anderson's (1985) skill development theory, the parallel phases are declarative knowledge acquisition, compilation or proceduralization, and automatization. Achieving the desired end states equips learners to think and
The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning. “In contrast, the constructivist perspective views knowledge as a form of mental representation, construction of the human mind” (Löbler, 2006, p. 28). Constructivism advocates that learning process is about memorizing information’s and repeating what teachers say. In a
Monitoring is one’s self-checking at each stage of the task. Evaluation includes the learner’s appraisal of the outcome and reflection on what new knowledge he or she gained”. [Delvecchio, F. (2011)] Metacognition is a subdivision of cognition, or a type of cognition. It is defined as the scientific study of an individual's cognitions about his or her own cognitions. Basically, metacognition is the self-reflection of cognition.
They believed that the role-playing process puts out a sample of human behavior that assists as a tool for students to 1) discover their feelings; 2) reach intuition into their attitudes, values, and cognitions; 3) increase their problem-solving skills and orientations; and 4) seek an issue in various procedures (Joyce & Weil, 1980 as cited in Crow & Nelson, 2015). According to (Henriksen, 2004 as cited in Crow & Nelson, 2015), Role-play is “…a medium where a person, through immersion into a role and the world of this role, is given the opportunity to participate in, and interact with the contents of this world, and its participants” (p. 108). Seaton, Dell’Angelo, Spencer, & Youngblood (2007) as cited in Crown & Nelson (2015) suggested the utilization of role-play to facilitate the progress of self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-monitoring of role-players. Special skills that can be acquired by role-play involve improving individual’s performance in light of feedback, becoming a good listener, and displaying sensibility to social
Therefore teamwork can be seen as a tool for learning mediators to participate themselves in teaching process with learners or cooperate with other learning mediators. In the situation of this college it doesn’t have an exact team based learning, therefore the learning outcomes can be assess in terms of the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skills of BSIE students according to their performances in shop work. Since shop work needs team
2.4.2 Student Self-Motivation and Theory As we mentioned in the problem statement part above self-regulatory attributes and self-regulatory processes influenced the strength of the learner’s self-motivation. Self-regulation is formerly from psychology and was defined by Bandura (1988) in terms of three forms of cognitive motivators including causal attributions, outcome expectancies, and cognized goals, each of which is based on its corresponding theory. Initial self-regulation scholars were concentrate on changing people 's dysfunctional behaviors such as aggression, addiction, and some other behavior problems in a healing world. Scholars now in education-related areas have gradually adopted the concept of self-regulation from psychology
‘Constructivist’ theory of learning is considered to be the main developmental theories of learning currently working in the area of special educational needs. Constructivism is ‘child-centred development’. It is an active and building process, where learners use what they already know to learn new things, and infer new knowledge based on their interaction with new experiences outside themselves, using information and ideas from within themselves, or already obtained. In other words, knowledge is considered to be socially constructed because it is obtained in partnership between new experiences and knowledge already acquired. Constructivism is useful for understanding the way in which a child may progress educationally, which is important
Rather, theory is to serve as a guide in systematizing knowledge and as a working concept to be modified in the light of new knowledge. The psychological theories that provide the underpinnings for the field of Learning Disability as explained by Janet Lerner are given
Framework of the Study The present study is anchored on several learning theories. These theories helped the researcher in organizing the content and process of the study. These theories are: Experiential Learning Theory, the Adult Learning Theory, Cognitive Load Theory, the Spiral Approach, and the professional Development Theory. Fig. 1 Framework of the Study The Experiential Learning Theory Fig.