At the beginning, the author puts emphasis on how native speakers of a language decide if a text is either a combination of unrelated sentences or a whole unified sentences based on hearing or reading it by the native speakers. The book ‘Cohesion in English’ show the differences that identify the two aspects of the text, as a unified whole, and collection of unrelated sentences. It is informed that there are empirical factors which are text characteristics, they should be found in order to save as basis in the text. In a grammatical unit, consistency is formed by a sentence supported by a clause to a group of clauses. A text is highly regarded as an exclusive semantic unit in the meaning related to a sentence or clause, however, it does not
There is two parts in this book, Part One, ‘Theoretical Preliminaries’ gives a general idea of what stylistics involves. It presents a set of techniques applicable to the description of any piece of language, and discusses various theoretical concepts necessary for classifying the varieties of language into types. English is the focus of the discussion, but it is felt that the techniques could be generalized to other languages. In chapter two ‘Linguistic Description’, they explain two models of linguistic description used in this book: models of non-segmental phonology and grammar. They use symbolization of non-segmental features to allow people to deduce the way in which the spoken discourse was spoken.
Semantic features will only deal with the meaning of individual words between the sentence pair. So, by considering only semantic features similarity among sentences cannot be estimated. For constructing a sentence out of these individual words syntactic features are required. In this paper, proposing phrase entity a new syntactic feature. The experimental work is carried out showing the importance of syntactic features
1. Early SLA Theories (A) Contrastive analysis model (CAM) posits that L2 learning is basically the process of transfer of L1 to L2. Therefore, CAM assumes strong influence of L1 and environment on L2 learning. In CAM, challenges in L2 learning are fully predictable by a comparison of L1 and L2 systems. For example, Spanish learners of English might say ‘clothes (n) used (adj)’ instead of ‘used clothes’ because in Spanish, nouns being modified precedes the adjectives (‘ropa(clothes) usada (=used)’ is the correct order in Spanish).
(2010, p. 170) defines translation as “the creation of text in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language”. She adds that it requires not only dealing with various kinds of texts from literal to idiomatic but also
1. Scope of the study Discourse analysis is the analysis of the written and spoken discourse. In other words discourse analysis refers to studies of the sentence in its linguistic context (Simensen, 2007: p.59). There must be cohesion that gives any text meaning and unity through cohesive ties. It links between words in any text.
Wardhaugh (2002, p.2) defines language to be: a knowledge of rules and principles and of the ways of saying and doing things with sounds, words, and sentences rather than just knowledge of specific sounds, words, and sentences. Language does not exist apart from culture because language is a medium through which culture is expressed in a particular context. Kramsh (1998) argues that the fact that language expresses, embodies and symbolizes cultural reality clearly shows that language and culture are bound together. She also indicates that language as a tool of communication, is “ bound up with culture in multiple and complex ways” ( Kramsh, 1998.p,13). So if we learn English without its
This Skopos may often differ from that of the source text (surely a useful point). The Skopos is the highest determining factor influencing the translator’s decisions. The action should observe the "Skopos rule," which postulates that the form of a target text (TT), including translation strategies and methods adopted, should above all be determined by the purpose or Skopos that the TT is intended to fulfill in the target context. Translation is the production of a functionally appropriate TT based on a source text (ST). While the translator is entitled to decide what role an ST plays in the translation process, the decisive factor is the precisely specified Skopos.
To understand the current state of the language, its grammatical forms, phonetic structure, vocabulary, every phenomenon of the modern language should be considered as a specific result of a long historical development. Relevance of the topic is that there is no language without words; and yet, although the words and very necessary, they do not in themselves constitute
So, the illocutionary point of the 'assertive declarations ' is to give an authoritative decision about some fact; the direction of fit is word-to-world and world-to-word; and the psychological sate is 'belief ' in the proposition issued. Verschueren (1999:24) states that Searle’s taxonomy of speech acts is “the most influential one