Bleaching is a generalized term for the loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates, or their pigments, in stony corals and is typically associated with sustained, unusually warm water temperatures (Hoegh-Guldberg, 1999), particularly when it occurs over a large geographic scale. Bleaching events can change colorful vibrant coral reefs into pale rocky graveyards, ominous shadows of possible future
They inhabit tropical ocean regions (Deep Sea Dragonfish. (n.d.)). They have unique structures to them that they are known for like their large sharp teeth with a protruding jaw and a long thread-like expansion from their epidermal layer at the base of their chin called a barbel (Spinal gap of barbeled dragonfishes mystery solved, 17 August 2010). There are 28 genera and more than 292 different species of dragonfishes (STOMIIDAE, in Fishes of Australia, 2012). One of the Genus is Opostomias which has two known species, Opostomia micriprius
There is high wave frequency and weak swash, which brings ashore a minute amount of material. Destructive waves tend to be tall waves, meaning they break with great force upon the beach leading to a strong backwash that removes beach material. Ultimately, destructive waves create steep narrow beaches. Constructive waves on the other hand have long periods between their wave crests and low energy. Their swash is much stronger than their backwash, building up the beach with deposited sediments.
They are very unique in many different ways and a crucial support for human life. They play also a very important role in the marine life such as giving shelter and food for millions of species including fishes, crabs, or shrimps. They support 33% of marine fish species. They also have specific and certain conditions to be formed, and to survive. They are also known as the “rainforest of the oceans” because of its huge diversity.
Mappleton has intense erosion at a rate of 2.0 mm per year which results in the access erode begin 50m from the cliff edge. In Withernsea ,the main erosion here is same as that of Hornsea. happens at downdrift of Withernsea. At the Spurn Head material eroded from the Holderness cliffs are swept southwards. Hard Engineering Type of coastal defence Description of the defence Advantages Disadvantages Groynes Are wooden barriers made at a right angle triangle to help retrain material for the beach building groynes prevents the misplacement for the beach material.
Meiofauna and macrofauna inhabiting the finer grain size beaches are confined to the oxygenated top few centimetres (Rodriguez et al., 2003), in order to avoid unoxygenated, stagnant black sand. On the other hand, the meiofauna found on beaches with large grain sizes can reach deep into the sediment (Rodriguez et al., 2003), in order to avoid the effects of wave action at the surface. Macrofauna can be negatively affected by wave action on beaches with high wave action and, therefore, tend to reside in more favourable beaches that have less wave action (McLachlan et al., 1996; Rodriguez et al.,
The distant tsunami was able to have a fast speed as it was going towards open sea which meant that the water was very deep, and the local tsunamis had a very slow speed as the body of the water wasn’t that deep, it was shallow which caused the waves to slowly reach the shore. From (-- removed HTML --) I found this very interesting as I thought the local tsunamis waves would move very fast towards the dry lands and I would’ve thought the distant tsunami waves would move faster because it is moving into the open ocean. This allowed the Samoan citizens to evacuate to higher grounds to become more safe form the tsunami that was about to happen as Samoa is a very mountainous
7,8 and 10). Most hurricanes form in the Atlantic Ocean because of the above mentioned conditions. When a hurricane is situated in warm water, the intensity of the storm increases because the warm water is the main source of energy along with the moist atmospheric conditions. Hurricane frequency depends heavily on what is called an El Niño. “El Niño refers to appearance of anomalously warm water along the coast of Ecuador and Peru as far south as Lima (12°S)” (Trenberth, 1997, p. 2771).
And if the plastic pollution rises then there will be losses of $8.5 million in tourist income annually for the country because of the pollution on the beach this happens in other countries as well. Some countries even bury plastic in the sand to keep tourists happy. This is terrible because it does not even biodegrade as well if it was in the ocean! However if other LDCs do the same as Nassau and ban single use plastics then this will cut plastic pollution by a huge percentage because even though LDCs do not have as much plastic they have no where to put it so it does not get recycled or get put somewhere where it will not go into the