From a legal standpoint no one has the right to even touch, let alone treat another person without permission. This would be classified as “battery” physical assault and is punishable by law. From this one might say obtaining consent is a must for anything other than a routine physical examination. A Patient should be given the opportunity to ask questions and clarify all doubts. There must not be any kind of pressure to do so.
Healthcare workers, patients and communities at large remain highly exposed to healthcare waste. Contaminated needles/ syringes and other supplies are unsafely disposed off in a number of countries and this pose a risk to healthcare workers and to the public at large. More than 16 billion injections are administered word wide. Of these, 95% are curative in nature, and 5% are administered in immunization setting. It is estimated that 50% of infections given in developing countries are unsafe, and these account for 33% of new hepatitis B virus, 43% of hepatitis C infections and 2.5% of new HIV infections (Path,
Do NOT open their mouth to place objects or medicines. Do NOT shake or shout at the person. Do NOT attempt to move them except if there is danger of falling. Do NOT attempt CPR unless the person has stopped breathing after the seizure. Things to watch for during a seizure Aside from learning what to do during a seizure, you must also know how to provide feedback to a doctor after the seizure.
The history of the headache An acute onset of the headache of the patient’s life associated with a stiff neck. Figure 3 CT-scan & MRI An ill appearing patient on physical examination typically lead the health care practitioner to consider the diagnosis and order a CT (computerized tomography) scan of the head. If the CT scan is performed within 72 hours of the onset of the headache it will detect 93% to 100% of all aneurysms. Figure 4 Lumbar Puncture In the few cases that are not recognized by CT the health care practitioner may consider performing a lumbar puncture to identify blood in the cerebrospinal fluid that runs in the subarachnoid space. Angiography If the CT or the LP reveals the presence of blood angiography is performed to identify where the aneurysm is located and to plan treatment.
Accidental needle stick injuries (NSIs) are the most common incidents occur in the wards. This incident may result in actual injury to the patients, nurses or other health care professionals. The Occupational Health Unit in the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, (2005) reports an incidence rate of 4.7 needle stick injuries per 1,000 health care workers. A hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted by Bhardwajet et al., (2014) in orthopedic wards Melaka General Hospital reported that the prevalence of NSIs was high in operation theatre involving specialist (n= 6, 18.8%), medical officer, (n=12, 37.5%), house officer (n=10, 31.2%) and staff nurses (n=4, 12.5%). In relation to needle prick injury, nurses are responsible for preparing a complete and comprehensive incidents report in which they are involved.
They can result from the various processes involved in treatment: prescribing, dispensing, administering the medication and monitory of treatment. In addition, there are several factors contributing to medication errors in hospitals. They include individual staff errors and system errors. There are many dangers resulting from medication error on the patient. They include deterioration of health status of the individual, increased financial expenses (as there is possibility of longer stay in the hospital) and development of medical complications.
Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses become resistant to the antimicrobial drug. Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue because without the proper antimicrobial medication procedures such as cesarean sections and cancer chemotherapy would become very high risk. The cost of healthcare and hospital stays would also dramatically increase for people with resistant illnesses. According to the World Health Organization, in 2016 490,000 people developed multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis globally, and drug resistance is starting to complicate the fight against HIV and malaria, as
INTRODUCTION Acute pulmonary oedema is a rare, but life-threatening problem which may cause significant morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. It may occur due to pathologies such as pre-eclampsia, sepsis, amniotic fluid embolism, fluid-overload or beta-adrenergic tocolytic drugs during the antenatal, intrapartum or postpartum periods. Moreover, pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases may worsen due to the superimposed effects of physiological changes related to pregnancy (1). Management of these patients is a challenge for the anaesthesiologists, because there are no controlled studies or guidelines pointing out the best type of anaesthetic technique in these patients (2). CASE A 38 years old, pregnant patient with a history of rheumatic
INTRODUCTION Wound infections are one of the bad complications in patients undergoing surgeries. Consequently, infections of different organs or tissues that visible to surgeons may lead to significant increment of postoperative morbidity and mortality beside prolongation of hospital stay.1 It has been well documented that eradication of wound infection resulted in significant increment of patient comfort and decreased medical costs.2 Onche and Adedeji3 stated that Staphylococcus aureus is the predominate cause of surgical wound and nosocomial infections. Currently, the antibiotic drug resistance is a fast growing concern in wound infection management beside the risk of impairment of wound healing, bacteraemia, or even sepsis.4 National Nosocomial
Because surgery is invasive and involves exposure to various anesthetic agents and drugs, and other environmental hazards, complications are common. The preoperative nurse’s responsible places with the emphasis on safety, patient education, advocacy, and ensure the culture of safety with all