The teacher and the learner have distinct responsibilities in the classroom that adds to the desired success of the teaching and learning process. This will be proven by analysing the Brain-based Learning Theory supported by Jensen, The Social Learning Theory introduced by Vygotsky, Scaffolding introduced by Bruner and parts of the Theory of Second Language Acquisition proposed by Krashen. The concurrence between the principles of constructivism and the CAPS and constructivism linking with the lesson wheel will also be discussed. The Brain-based Learning Theory is based on the fact that the brain is “designed to learn in a natural accordance” (2008:4) and that the search for meaning is instinctive for the brain. Brain-based learning is about
This involves taking the information that your audience has to learn and changing it into material that is both meaningful and clear. As an instructional designer your work should help learners to see the bigger picture, which is accomplished by putting the various bits of information together in a coherent manner. In short, as an instructional designer your job isn’t simply to present people with information, but to help them make sense of it. What Duties Might I Have As An Instructional Designer? One of your primary duties as an instructional designer will be to identify the learning needs of students by working with subject matter experts.
"Thus, the teachers use modern information technology, information technology plays an auxiliary unique features of teaching, to improve classroom teaching is an important idea of the current school reform. To be able to reasonable and effective use of information technology in teaching, we first need to fully understand the role of IT in the classroom
TPACK can be redefined as; the pedagogical dimensions that use the new technologies in constructive methods to deliver subject content in a manner that offers the learners a new understanding of the world around them. Basically the combination of these three factors technology, pedagogy and content knowledge have formed and shaped the TPACK model to be considered as the most important element in the learning process, the TPACK in the learning process can lead to success or failure process or outcomes, it depends on both the student and the teacher, everyone has his own role for it to be successful, the students have to improve their skills in the ICT as a receiver, their social communications and his critical thinking to be able to deal with the pedagogy dimension can be used inside the classroom, and regarding the teacher has to develop his skills in the ICT as well but as a sender, has to have a deep understanding for the pedagogy dimensions and to have a strong back ground about the taught subject therefore TPACK does not mean that the teacher has to deal with each element of (T, P, and C) separately but it means in simple words that the teacher has to create the pot where he needs to place these elements together for the complex interaction amongst them to take place which can be considered later as the integration between the technology and the
It also encourages the cognitive apprentice approach where reflective practices of learner (learner-self interaction) and the interaction between the learner and the facilitator are crucial, similar to my personal lens. The function of context is another aspect of my personal lens aligns with the established theory where contextual learning is the key. Using authentic contextual experiences that are decided by learners drive the learning experiences in my kind of classroom. Finally, with regards to the role of facilitators, both views support that educators should provide guidance from reliance to gradually move to independent
Differentiation, with respect to instruction, means tailoring it to meet individual needs of the students. Teachers can differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Teachers differentiate the four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. (Tomlinson 2000). Differentiated instruction can be known as an organizing framework in teaching and learning which calls for a major restructuring in the classroom and syllabus, if done in the proper way, its benefits will transgress the costs.
Pedagogy is important because it demonstrate how the teaching and learning occurs. Students must build up their own understandings through teachers’ and their own considered learning experiences. Teacher’s subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge are vital to good teaching and student understanding (Buchmann, 1982, 1983; Tobin & Garnett, 1988). In Shulman's theoretical framework, teachers need to master two types of knowledge: content and knowledge of the curricular development. Teacher must integrate teaching strategies that will help students to assimilate knowledge such as supportive classroom environment, recognition of difference and connectedness to the wider world.
This is because changes in the behavior of students is the impact on students ' thinking process. This theory focuses on the process of knowing and acquiring knowledge through information processing by means of discussion, reasoning, problem solving and brainstorming activities. This theory is also closely associated with the process of storing information. A psychological cognitivism said that learning involves the use of memory, motivation and thinking and therefore software designers must consider the materials for learning should ensure that there are activities for the various learning styles10. In addition, the teaching strategies should highlight important information and content to enhance the learning process.
Experiential Learning plays an impeccable role keeping knowledge and conceptual learning in mind. The students not only deal with real life situations but also go through case studies, research, surveys, problem solving and decision making activities which support student learning to its brim. Experiential Learning is envisioned as a transformation from instructivist to constructivist; from teacher centric to student centric; a focus on the system from local learning to global learning. In today’s fast paced competitive world the students get an opportunity to learn the skills instead of theoretical knowledge. The classrooms are converted into labs where students learn through their hands on activities so that they can deepen their knowledge through repeatedly acting and then reflecting on the action.
Bruner Piaget influenced Bruner on his research about Child development, he believed that learning is an active process and that learners need to develop their own knowledge and ideas using their current or previous knowledge. The effective instruction includes: • Personalized: instruction should relate to learner’s experiences that motivates the student to learn from within one’s self. • Content Structure: Content must be designed so it can be easily grasped by the student. He also called this aspect a “Spiral curriculum” building thinking and learning skills over time to make it deeper and more complex, builds on itself. • Sequencing: An important aspect of material presentation.